IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
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High-Resolution Dynamic 31P-MR Spectroscopic Imaging for Mapping Mitochondrial Function
Abnormal mitochondrial metabolism is a hallmark of many prevalent diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease; however, current understanding of mitochondrial function is mostly gained from studies on isolated mitochondria under nonphysiological conditions. This work presents a novel high-resolution dynamic 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging method that synergistically integrates physics-based models of spectral structures, biochemical modeling of molecular dynamics, and subspace learning, for metabolic mapping at high-spatiotemporal resolution. It enables in vivo imaging of phosphocreatine resynthesis rates, a well-established index of mitochondrial oxidative capacity, thus providing a powerful tool for longitudinal assessment of mitochondrial function in disease progression... Read more
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Robust Collaborative Clustering of Subjects and Radiomic Features for Cancer Prognosis
A robust collaborative clustering method has been developed in a Bayesian framework to simultaneously cluster patients and imaging features into distinct groups respectively, aiming to learn a compact set of discriminative features in radiomics studies. Experiments on synthetic data have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach in data clustering, and evaluation results on an FDG-PET/CT dataset of rectal cancer patients have demonstrated that the proposed method outperforms alternative methods in terms of both patient stratification and prediction of patient clinical outcomes... Read more
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An Integrated Robotic System for MRI-Guided Neuroablation: Preclinical Evaluation
This paper present preclinical trials of a robotic system for needle-based therapeutic ultrasound (NBTU) ablation of brain tumors under real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. The system comprises of robotic manipulator and corresponding control electronics, the NBTU ablation system and applications for planning, navigation, and monitoring of the system. The integrated robotic system can place NBTU ablator at a desired target location in porcine brain and monitor the ablation in real-time via magnetic resonance thermal imaging (MRTI). The robotic system had a mean translational and rotational accuracy of 3.13±1.41 mm and 5.58±3.59° in 10 porcine trials... Read more
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The impact of ACL laxity on a bicondylar robotic knee and implications in human joint biomechanics
A robot model of the human knee provides a new way to investigate joint biomechanics. The specially designed joint has geometry copied from human bones scans and uses springs for ligaments. A knee cap (patella) and tendons transmit forces from an antagonistic pair of actuators, like in the human leg. This method overcomes many of the experimental limitations from using human tissue. The robot demonstrates the unique way in which the sliding of the joint surfaces allows the human knee mechanism to compensate when critical structures such as the anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) are removed... Read more
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Target Flow-Pressure Operating Range for Designing a Failing Fontan Cavopulmonary Support Device
The Fontan procedure has enabled the survival of single ventricle patients into adulthood and reduced early morbidity. However, the lack of a sub-pulmonary ventricle to pump blood flow forward into the lungs have led to serious late complications, including a failing circulation. Using computational modeling of hemodynamics, this study aims to elucidate the hydraulic operating regions to be targeted for designing a cavopulmonary pump that can support Fontan patients with failing circulations. These operating regions also provide criteria for evaluating the off-label use of commercially available blood pumps for Fontan cavopulmonary support... Read more
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Millimeter-wave Substrate Integrated Waveguide Probe for Skin Cancer Detection
This work presents an innovative, low-cost, easy-to-fabricate, and simple-to-use probe that can detect early-stage skin cancer. As can be seen above, the probe scans the suspected skin area to enable capturing the reflection coefficient at each position. The collected data is then processed to infer the presence of skin cancer through a differential approach. In order to do this, a novel imaging function is utilized to enable the detection of relative permittivity changes with respect to the healthy region surrounding the suspected one, resulting in the 2D image depicted above... Read more
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Compact Optical Neural Probes with up to 20 Integrated Thin-Film μLEDs Applied in Acute Optogenetic Studies
Slender silicon-based optical probes comprising up to 20 thin-film micro light-emitting diodes (µLEDs) are realized as compact devices for optogenetic research. The μLEDs are structured on GaN-on-sapphire and transferred onto silicon using a wafer-level bonding and laser lift-off process. This technology allows processing the GaN layer stack from both sides, thereby maximizing the µLED efficiency to an emittance of 56 mWmm−2 at 5 mA. The thermal characterization of the optical probes reveals a temperature increase of up to 1.5 K. Acceptable neuronal responses are elicited at radiant flux values between 1.36 μW and 17.5 μW, successfully demonstrating layer-specific cortex stimulation... Read more
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A System for Characterizing Intraoperative Force Distribution during Operative Laryngoscopy
Investigators are increasingly finding that “smart” surgical instrumentation may improve clinical outcomes as greater tool-tissue contact forces are correlated with peri- and post-operative complications. While previous efforts to study intraoperative pressure distributions in otolaryngology have been limited by static equilibrium assumptions and cadaver-only testing, we present an integrated data acquisition system for detecting intraoperative forces and pressures during operative laryngoscopy using sixteen piezoresistive sensors. This low-cost and custom system can be calibrated within one hour prior to procedure with 1–2.5% error, and cadaver and live patient trials have shown comparable force and pressure data to literature values... Read more
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Computed Tomography-Based Modeling of Water Vapor-Induced Changes in Permittivity During Microwave Ablation
One can imagine that boiling water has such different physical properties than drinking water. Microwave ablation, a minimally invasive cancer treatment modality, increases the temperature of tissues even higher than the boiling temperature of water to eradicate cancerous tissues. To achieve an accurate simulation for microwave ablation treatment planning, we need to consider all the changes that occur in tissue properties. In this study, we used computed tomography imaging to measure the amount of water vapor that accumulates in tissues during microwave ablation. We modeled tissue properties as a function of vapor content using mixture equations which possessed greater accuracy than existing models... Read more
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Simultaneous Optimization of Patient–Image Registration and Hand–Eye Calibration for Accurate Augmented Reality in Surgery
For augmented reality (AR)-guided endoscopic surgery, patient–image registration and hand–eye calibration are essential steps and they have been separately performed so far with accumulating errors. In the proposed method, the two separate steps are integrated in a single step with minimized errors under the on-site AR condition. The AR superimposing accuracy can increase due to the reduced computational complexity of transformation processes and the compensated tracking errors of the position sensor…... Read more
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Disposable Paper-on-CMOS Platform for Real-time Simultaneous Detection of Metabolites
A fast and simple-to-use platform that combines an integrated circuit with paper microfluidics for simultaneous detection of multiple-metabolites appropriate for diagnostics is presented. The system measures changes in optical absorbance in functionalised paper to achieve a cost-effective and easy to implement system that is capable of multiple simultaneous assays. Potential sepsis metabolite biomarkers, glucose, and lactate, have been studied with the platform, achieving sensitivity within the physiological range in human serum. The combination of a low-cost paper strip and sensitive CMOS photodiodes makes our platform a robust, portable, and inexpensive biosensing device for multiple diagnostic tests in many applications... Read more
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Visual Servoed Robotic Mouse Oocyte Rotation
Both injection and biopsy of a mammalian cell require positioning and orientation of a biological cell in a three-dimensional space under a microscope. Manual cell manipulation and orientation is the most commonly used method that is based on a trial-and-error and direct cell poking approach. We present a system that is able to automatically rotate a mouse oocyte to a desired orientation based on pressure control and computer vision. Our methods improve existing techniques and provide a starting point for fast autofocusing and oocyte orientation prior to automatic ICSI or cell biopsy... Read more
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Toward a High-Throughput Wireless Smart Arena for Behavioral Experiments on Small Animals
We present a high-throughput wirelessly-powered and scalable smart arena for conducting behavioral experiments on freely behaving animals like rodents. It is made of multiple units known as EnerCage, operating in parallel, and fits in standard racks used in animal facilities. The multi-EnerCage-Homecage (mEHC) system increases the volume of data collected from more animals, while lowering the cost and duration of experiments. It is equipped with an auto-tuning mechanism to compensate for the resonance-frequency shifts caused by displacement of adjacent homecages. A 7-units prototype of the mEHC system is implemented and the effects of interference and resonance-frequency bifurcation are minimized... Read more
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Design of Ceramic Packages for Ultrasonically Coupled Implantable Medical Devices
Ultrasonic power transfer has emerged as an efficient method for powering and communicating with small and deeply implanted medical devices. However, most work utilizing ultrasonically-coupled implants relies on non-hermetic polymeric encapsulation materials rather than conventional metal or ceramic packaging materials due to the inherent acoustic impedance mismatch of metals and ceramics. Here, we develop models of ultrasonic power transfer through metals, examining flexural and bulk mode propagation, to determine optimal package design for ultrasonic power transfer. We utilize these results to build millimeter-scale hybrid ceramic/metal packages, and perform benchtop demonstrations of ultrasonic powering and communication with a packaged electrophysiology sensor... Read more
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Automated In Vivo Navigation of Magnetic-Driven Microrobots Using OCT Imaging Feedback
This paper presents a study on the navigation of microrobots in vivo by using optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging feedback. The electromagnetic gradient field generated by a home-made electromagnetic manipulation system is magnetically modeled. With this model, the magnetic force acting on the microrobot is calculated, and the relationship between this force and the velocity of the microrobot is characterized. The findings are verified by the in vitro and in vivo environments, with the imaging feedback of the OCT imaging system and the actuation of the electromagnetic manipulation system. Experimental results have successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach... Read more
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Evaluation of Secrecy Capacity for Next-Generation Leadless Cardiac Pacemakers
Cardiac pacemakers are implanted medical devices designed to regulate abnormal cardiac rhythms. In the case of traditional pacemakers, the leads are considered to be the weakest link. This study proposes the keyless physical layer security (PLS) method to provide information confidentiality for next-generation leadless cardiac pacemakers. Electromagnetic simulations and experimental measurements were performed to prove the hypothesis of the availability of positive secrecy capacity in the near proximity of the human body. The research also evaluates the insecure volume in three-dimensional space around the body representing all the eavesdropper positions from which the pacemaker can be eavesdropped... Read more
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Monocular 3D Probe Tracking for Generating Sub-Surface Optical Property Maps From Diffuse Optical Spectroscopic Imaging
Light-based, or biophotonic, technologies are safe and portable tools for assessing tissue health. Above, we see how a handheld optical probe uses frequency modulated light to assess subsurface tissue composition by measuring molecular concentrations of absorbing and scattering media. However, assessing large tissue regions (e.g., in breast cancer) is traditionally a tedious and rigid process with ramifications for longitudinal follow-up. Here, we developed an overhead camera system that, paired with probe geometry knowledge, can track the probe in 3D as it is scanned across the tissue (as above), enabling real-time operator driven optical imaging... Read more
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Real-time Radiofrequency Ablation Lesion Depth Estimation Using Multi-Frequency Impedance with a Deep Neural Network and Tree-based Ensemble
A combination of different machine learning algorithms and a hardware setup that consists of an embedded system and a 3D-printed electrode device is used to monitor the progress of radiofrequency ablation depth on a perfused breast tissue model. The device at the center of the tissue model both applied the alternating current and collected the tissue impedance data at multiple frequencies, which is fed into tree-based ensemble (TE) models and a deep neural network (DNN). Their predictions showed a mean difference against physical measurements of 0.5 mm for the DNN and 0.7 mm for the TEs... Read more
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A Clinical Prototype Transrectal Diffuse Optical Tomography (TRDOT) System for In vivo Monitoring of Photothermal Therapy (PTT) of Focal Prostate Cancer
Prostate focal therapy targets only cancerous lesions in the prostate while ensuring no treatment effect on critical structures such as the rectum. In this work, we report on the assembly and testing of a transrectal diffuse optical tomography (TRDOT) system for monitoring the size of coagulated lesions generated during photothermal focal therapy of prostate tumors. During treatment, TRDOT signal is sensitive to the large increase in tissue optical scattering that occurs with thermally-induced tissue coagulation. Using ex vivo samples, we demonstrate that TRDOT can accurately map the size of a treatment-induced lesion and show that clinical measurements are feasible... Read more
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Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Robotic Needle Insertion for Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty
Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) is a promising form of partial-thickness cornea transplantation, but its popular “big bubble” technique frequently fails due to difficulty controlling a needle insertion into the cornea. We addressed the surgeon challenges that reduce success rates by demonstrating an optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guided, robotically stabilized workstation for manually or automatically performing DALK needle insertions. In a study with cornea fellows, we found that OCT visualization versus the standard stereo microscope was a key enabler in manual attempts and that our automatic robotic method met or exceeded the performance of cornea fellows... Read more
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Stimulation Pattern Efficiency in Percutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation: Experimental versus Numerical data
Percutaneous electrical stimulation of the auricular vagus nerve (pVNS) is an electroceutical technology. Stimulation patterns are empirical, which may lead to under-stimulation or over-stimulation. The objective is to assess the experimental efficiency of different stimulation patterns in volunteers and to compare it with in-silico ear models. Monophasic (MS), biphasic (BS) and a novel triphasic stimulation (TS) patterns were tested. TS indicates experimental superiority over BS which is superior to MS. Numerical results indicate a slight superiority of BS and TS over MS. TS yields the highest number of asynchronous action impulses. The study favors the novel TS pattern... Read more
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MRI Conditional Actively-Tracked Metallic Electrophysiology Catheters and Guidewires with Miniature Tethered Radio-Frequency Traps: Theory, Design and Validation
Cardiovascular interventional devices typically have long metallic braids or backbones to aid in steerability and pushability. However, electromagnetic coupling of metallic-based cardiovascular interventional devices with the radiofrequency (RF) fields present during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can make a device unsafe for use in an MRI scanner. We aimed to develop MRI conditional actively-tracked cardiovascular interventional devices by sufficiently attenuating induced currents on the metallic braid/tube and internal-cabling using miniaturized resonant floating RF traps (MBaluns). We provided electromagnetic simulation revealing MBalun critical dimensions, along with phantom heating and swine experiments that validate the designs... Read more
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Stable Responsive EMG Sequence Prediction and Adaptive Reinforcement with Temporal Convolutional Networks
Movement prediction from EMG can be performed by compressing a short window of EMG into a feature-encoding that is meaningful for classification— an approach that can cause erratic prediction behavior. Temporal convolutional networks (TCN) leverage temporal information from EMG to achieve superior predictions for 3 simultaneous degrees-of-freedom that are more accurate and stable, have a very low response delay, and allow for novel types of interactive training. Addressing EMG decoding as a sequential prediction problem requires a new set of considerations that will lead to enhancements in the reliability, responsiveness, and movement complexity available from prosthesis control systems... Read more
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Foot-Controlled Robot-Enabled EnDOscope Manipulator (FREEDOM) for Sinus Surgery: Design, Control, and Evaluation
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is a common minimally invasive technique but remains manually operated by the surgeon with one hand holding the endoscope most of the time. This article reports a novel robotic system for side-by-side assistance of endoscope positioning with the surgeon in FESS from platform development to clinical validation. The design emphasizes clinical considerations for both operational safety and user ergonomics, which were validated by clinical trials to demonstrate good surgical applicability in terms of efficient robot set-up and enabling three-handed procedures performed by the surgeon alone, without disrupting the routine practice of FESS... Read more
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On-Chip Impedance Quantification of Parasitic Voltages During AC Electrokinetic Trapping
Monitoring the effectiveness and location of cell or particle trapping under microfluidic force fields is currently achieved by cumbersome imaging methods that require extensive microscopy to be conducted by a trained operator, with limited ability to rapidly trigger downstream decisions. We present an embedded circuit for an impedance sensor that directly interfaces to a microfluidic chip for the monitoring of cell or particle trapping based on the level and frequency response of parasitic voltage drops measured during AC electrokinetic manipulation, to enable assessment of trapping efficacy of the device geometry and to rapidly inform downstream cell separation decisions... Read more
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Development of Dopamine Sensor Using Silver Nanoparticles and PEG Functionalized Tapered Optical Fiber Structure
A medical diagnosis of dopamine used one of the most effective localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) optical methods in this study. LSPR technology has many unique features such as real-time monitoring, label-free detection, and smooth integration. Sensor is immobilized with silver-nanoparticles followed by functionalization of polyethylene glycol. Highly sophisticated instruments such as HR-TEM, UV-Vis-spectrophotometer, EDS, and SEM were used for the characterization of nanoparticles and immobilized probe. It shows the great selectivity towards detection of dopamine in the presence of other higher concentrated coexist biomolecules such as ascorbic acid. A noticeable improvement is recorded in the all-important sensing parameters... Read more
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Combined Single Cell Manipulation and Chemomechanical Modeling to Probe Cell Migration Mechanism during Cell-to-cell Interaction
During cell-to-cell interaction, spatial presentations of chemical and mechanical information are key parameters for cell migration. A chemomechanical model to assess the biochemical and biophysical modulators of single cell migration during cell-to-cell interaction can help to understand cell migration in a complex environment that is close to realistic in vivo situation. In the work, the issue is modeled based on molecular clutches, and experiment validation is implemented through single cell manipulation through optical tweezers. The results show that cell migration velocity caused by chemotaxis can be biased by dynamic adhesion force between cells... Read more
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A multiscale agent-based model of ductal carcinoma in situ
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the United States, and about 17% of these occur within the mammary gland duct, known as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We have developed a multiscale, lattice-free agent-based model of DCIS, incorporating both molecular and cellular scales, to study how phenotypic and signaling changes influence the key early stages of disease development. By simulating the effects of bidirectional feedback between these scales, we have gained valuable insights into how this complex interplay affects disease progression, and have identified key processes that may be optimal prognostic indicators of future disease advancement... Read more
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CMOS-compatible, Flexible, Intracortical Neural Probes
Flexible intracortical neural probes elicit a lower tissue response compared to rigid implants. However, silicon-based neural probes incorporating complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry offer improved scalability and functionality. We describe a novel neural implant combining short, needle-like CMOS-based probe tips with flexible polyimide cables. Ultra-thin shuttles enable their complete implantation into brain tissue. An optimized cable fabrication process based on ion beam and plasma etching increases line and pad density, thus minimizing the bond area between cable and probe tip to widths of 100 µm. The synergetic approach surpasses the limitations of each individual probe technology and should be considered in future developments... Read more
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Enhanced detection of bubble emissions through the intact spine for monitoring ultrasound-mediated blood-spinal cord barrier opening
Short burst, phase keying (SBPK) is a clinically relevant pulse scheme for focused ultrasound delivery to the spinal canal. We demonstrate that emissions from microbubbles exposed to these pulses can be detected through ex vivo human vertebrae, and that SBPK exposures can open the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) in rats. Microbubbles were sonicated through ex vivo vertebrae and emissions were analyzed using short time Fourier analysis. Pulses were modified to include pulse inversion, which enhanced detection of acoustic signatures. In rats, opening was confirmed by MRI enhancement. Detection of the subharmonic was linked to tissue damage observed at histology... Read more
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An Automated Microrobotic Platform for Rapid Detection of C. diff Toxins
Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection is a serious public health threat, and early diagnosis of this toxin-mediated disease is important. This paper presents a fluorescence imaging-integrated microrobotic system and related methods for automated and rapid detection of C. diff toxins. The automated mobile detection process finishes within 20 minutes, and then qualitative and semi-quantitative results are immediately given. This process is at least 8 times shorter than that of the conventional ELISA. The proposed microrobotic platform offers an automated, rapid and low-cost C. diff toxin detection technique that has good competency for future clinical use... Read more
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Wireless Hyperthermia Stent System for Restenosis Treatment and Testing with Swine Model
Stenting is a common approach to treating atherosclerosis, the main pathology that leads to cardiovascular disease causing thousands of death each day. Despite its proven efficacy, the long-term results of stenting are still limited by re-narrowing of stented artery known... Read more
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Toward Safe Retinal Microsurgery: Development and Evaluation of an RNN-based Active Interventional Control Framework
Retinal surgery is an excellent example of a high-demand dexterity procedure that may benefit from robotic systems. However, due to an incomplete understanding of a surgeon’s imminent intentional manipulations, the assistance provided to the surgeons by current robotic frameworks is... Read more
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A Deep Learning Framework for Single-Sided Sound Speed Inversion in Medical Ultrasound
Abnormalities in the tissue’s mechanical properties and structure, as well as their spatial arrangement, are useful in disease diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression. To this end, ultrasound shear wave elastography is gaining traction as a useful diagnostic tool for... Read more
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In-vivo Intrathecal Tracer Dispersion in Cynomolgus Monkey Validates Wide Biodistribution Along Neuraxis
Intrathecal (IT) delivery is a drug administration method that bypasses the blood-brain barrier by injecting therapeutic molecules directly into the central nervous system. In vivo tracer infusion experiments performed in cynomolgus monkeys dispel the common belief that in intrathecal drug... Read more
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Wireless Resonant Circuits Printed Using Aerosol Jet Deposition for MRI Catheter Tracking
Each year, nearly three-quarters of a million people in the US suffer from an ischemic stroke, caused by a blood clot in the vessels that feed the brain. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) provides the gold standard in determining whether it... Read more
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Generalized modeling framework of metal oxide-based non-enzymatic glucose sensor: concepts, methods, and challenges
For the 422 million diabetes patients worldwide, the glucose sensor is a life-saving technology. The first-generation sensors use glucose oxidase (GO_x) enzyme to convert glucose into gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H_2 O_2). The amperometric response of H_2 O_2 determines... Read more
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Quantitative Assessment of Changes in Muscle Contractility Due to Fatigue During NMES: An Ultrasound Imaging Approach
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been demonstrated to activate paralyzed or paretic muscles that in turn help restore limb functions (e.g., standing, walking, upper limb functions such as grasp and reaching) of persons with stroke, hemiplegia, paraplegia and other neurological... Read more
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Gradient-induced mechanical vibration of neural interfaces during MRI
The frequency spectrum of gradient pulses applied during the acquisition of MR images overlaps mostly with the mechanical resonance frequencies of active implanted medical devices such as neural implants. This raises the important question if it is possible to trigger... Read more
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Faster Gait Speeds Reduce Alpha and Beta EEG Spectral Power From Human Sensorimotor Cortex
Understanding how the human brain controls locomotion is a considerable neuroscience challenge that has required advancements in mobile neuroimaging methods. Mobile high-density electroencephalography (EEG) allows electrical brain activity to be measured non-invasively during gait, but these signals are prone to... Read more
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Continuum Robot with Follow the Leader Motion for Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy and Tumor Biopsy
In a combined endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and endoscopic tumor biopsy (ETB) procedure, an optimal tool trajectory is mandatory to minimize trauma to surrounding cerebral tissue. Ideally, methods for performing this ETV/ETB procedure must ensure adequate visualization of and access... Read more
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Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Technical Skills in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: In Vivo Porcine Studies
Technical skill assessment plays an important role in the professional development of an interventionalist in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), however, most of traditional assessment methods are time-consuming and subjective. This paper aims to develop objective and automatic assessment techniques for... Read more
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Perceptual Limits of Optical See-Through Visors for Augmented Reality Guidance of Manual Tasks
The current generation of consumer-level Optical-See Trough (OST) Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs) is not specifically designed for the peripersonal space. Indeed it generally renders the virtual content on a fixed focal plane located at a distance of 2 meters or more... Read more
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Pose Estimation of Periacetabular Osteotomy Fragments with Intraoperative X-Ray Navigation
State-of-the-art navigation systems for pelvic osteotomies use optical systems with external fiducials. In this paper, we propose the use of X-ray navigation for pose estimation of periacetabular fragments without external fiducial objects. A multiple-object, multiple-view, two-dimensional/three-dimensional registration pipeline was developed... Read more
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Low-Voltage Irreversible Electroporation Using a Comb-Shaped Contact Electrode
Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a less invasive therapy to ablate tumor cells by delivering short intensive electric pulses more than a few kV via needle-like electrodes. However, general anesthesia is needed for the therapy to avoid muscle convulsions and contractions... Read more
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Image-based Artefact Removal in Laser Scanning Microscopy
Advances in laser scanning microscopy (LSM) have greatly extended its applicability in cancer imaging not only to observe dynamic biological processes, but also to quantitatively measure them. The fast acquisition, with high spatial and temporal resolution and extended field of... Read more
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An Ankle-Foot Prosthesis Emulator Capable of Modulating Center of Pressure
Several powered ankle-foot prostheses have demonstrated moderate reductions in energy expenditure by restoring pushoff work in late stance or by assisting with balance. However, it is possible that center of pressure trajectory modulation could provide even further improvements in user... Read more
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Pediatric Airway Stent Designed to Facilitate Mucus Transport and Atraumatic Removal
The standard treatment for tracheobronchomalacia in infants and children is to use positive pressure ventilation to prevent airway collapse. With a treatment period of 3-9 months, maintaining a child on a ventilator requires close monitoring to ensure regular mucus clearance... Read more
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Single-Site Devices for Conjoined Glucose Sensing and Insulin Delivery
Diabetes patients are increasingly using a continuous glucose sensor to monitor blood glucose and an insulin pump connected to an infusion cannula to administer insulin. Applying these devices requires two separate insertion sites, one for the sensor and one for... Read more
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Electric Stimulus-Responsive Chitosan/MNP composite Microbeads for a Drug Delivery System
Direct drug administration has several shortcomings, for eg, poor target localization and specificity, opsonization, undesired systemic exposure, etc. Stimuli controlled Drug Delivery Substrates (DDS) not only sterically shield the drug from premature renal flushing, but also introduce the possibility of... Read more
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4-D Flow MRI-Based Computational Analysis of Blood Flow in Patient-Specific Aortic Dissection
       Type B aortic dissection (TBAD) is a serious clinical emergency characterized by a split in the layers of the aortic wall which allows blood to enter a second channel known as false lumen. This disease impairs blood supply to body... Read more
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Real-Time Photoacoustic Thermometry Combined with Clinical Ultrasound Imaging and High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound
        High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment is a promising non-invasive method for killing or destroying the diseased tissues by locally delivering thermal and mechanical energy without damaging surrounding normal tissues. In HIFU, measuring the temperature at the treatment site is... Read more
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A Hybrid Robotic System for Arm Training of Stroke Survivors: Concept and First Evaluation
                      This work describes a hybrid robotic system for arm recovery after stroke, combining EMG-triggered Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) with a passive exoskeleton for upper limb suspension. The system was developed within the European project RETRAINER and was used in a... Read more
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In vivo Visualization of Brain Vasculature in Alzheimer’s Disease Model Mice through High-Resolution Ultrasound Blood Flow Mapping
     Objective: Cerebrovascular disorders are associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Preclinical animal study is necessary for understanding AD pathogenesis and determining its optimal diagnosis and treatment strategies. Conventionally, the cerebral vasculature’s structure is analyzed through histological staining. However, functional analysis of... Read more
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A Minimally Invasive Hollow Microneedle with a Cladding Structure: Ultra-Thin but Strong, Batch Manufacturable
      Institution: National Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Fabrication Technology, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan RD. Minhang District, Shanghai 200240, China Description: With the development of micromachining technology, microneedles have been developed by academic laboratories... Read more
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Catheter Treatment of Ventricular Tachycardia: A Reference-Less Pace-Mapping Method to Identify Ablation Targets
       Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a life-threatening arrhythmia. In patients with myocardial infarction, electrical activation of the ventricles is impaired by the remodelling of the infarcted area, which results in conduction blocks, and slow conducting zones with sparse surviving fibres. Slow... Read more
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Implantable Multi-modality Probe for Subdural Simultaneous Measurement of Electrophysiology, Hemodynamics, and Temperature Distribution
       The integration of the multi-channel measurement capabilities of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), electrocorticography (ECoG), and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor sensors into a single device, having a compact profile similar to that of the subdural strip electrodes commonly used in neurosurgery,... Read more
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FeetBeat: A Flexible Iontronic Sensing Wearable Detects Pedal Pulses and Muscular Activities
      Human feet have long been considered in close association with whole-body health, from which abundant cardiovascular and skeletomuscular information can be extracted. In this study, we aim to develop the world’s first foot-based wearable system that can detect both pedal... Read more
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A Palm-Sized Cryoprobe System with a Built-in Thermocouple and Its Application in an Animal Model of Epilepsy
        We have studied a palm-sized cryoprobe system and showed that cryosurgery may be an effective treatment for epilepsy. Conventional cryoprobe systems have triple coaxial tubes. Since accurate temperature measurement of the probe tip is indispensable for reliable treatment of cryosurgery,... Read more
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Improving Performance of Devanagari Script Input-Based P300 Speller Using Deep Learning
  In P300 based BCI systems, eliciting ERP using the oddball stimulation will conceal the original P300 components in EEG signal. Therefore, it requires accurate detection of P300 components to precisely recognize the characters. For that purpose, conventional machine learning and... Read more
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High-Quality Immunohistochemical Stains through Computational Assay Parameter Optimization
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been the gold standard technique for cancer diagnostics and treatment choice for the past several decades. Immunostaining produces chromatic signal by exposing a tissue to antibodies. The quality of the stain depends on staining process parameters, i.e.... Read more
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A Review of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound for Therapeutic Applications
Ultrasound therapy has a long history of novel applications in medicine. Compared to high-intensity ultrasound used for tissue heating, low-intensity ultrasound has drawn increasing attention recently due to its ability to induce therapeutic changes without significant biological temperature increase. Low-intensity... Read more
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A Coaxial RF Applicator for Ultra-High Field Human MRI
In our work, we present a novel concept for the ultra-high-field (UHF) human magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based on a coaxial cavity is described. Physical dimensions make the proposed conducting structure resonant at the required frequency and tuning lumped elements... Read more
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Wrap-Around Wearable Coils for Seamless Monitoring of Joint Flexion
Monitoring human body kinematics can open doors to innumerable applications in sectors including (a) healthcare (rehabilitation, and research on understanding complicated motor disabling conditions), (b) sports (rehabilitation and training), (c) gesture recognition, (d) gaming, and (e) virtual reality, among others. To... Read more
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A Framework for Measuring the Time-Varying Shape and Full-Field Deformation of Residual Limbs Using 3D Digital Image Correlation
Effective prosthetic socket design following lower-limb amputation depends upon the accurate characterization of the shape of the residual limb as well as its volume and shape fluctuations. This study proposes a novel framework for the measurement and analysis of residual... Read more
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Robotic Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy
We present a robot-assisted approach for transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy. The robot is a hands-free probe manipulator that moves the ultrasound probe with the same 4 degrees-of-freedom (DoF) that are used manually in transrectal procedures, closely replicating its... Read more
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A New RF Heating Strategy for Thermal Treatment of Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis contributes to major mortality and modality of cardiovascular diseases around the world. Angioplasty and stenting are the common treatments for blocked arteries induced by atherosclerosis in clinic. In the treatment, the narrowed artery lumen is effectively opened by the... Read more
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Fluidic bypass structures for improving the robustness of liquid scanning probes
Liquid scanning probes enable interfacing with biological surfaces and are compatible with a wide range of workflows and bioanalytical applications. To facilitate rapid and widespread adoption of liquid scanning probes in research, as well as in diagnostics, their operational robustness... Read more
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3D Microwave Tomography Using the Soft Prior Regularization Technique: Evaluation in Anatomically-Realistic MRI-Derived Numerical Breast Phantoms
In this work, we present methods and results for fusion of magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) breast images with microwave tomography through a soft prior regularization technique. This method incorporates accurate boundary location of different regions of interest from MRI as spatial... Read more
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Three-Dimensional Electrical Impedance Tomography with Multiplicative Regularization
It is known that the image reconstruction problem of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is ill-posed. As a result, a regularization scheme is usually applied to alleviate the ill-posedness. In the commonly used Tikhonov regularization scheme, a regularization function is added... Read more
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Correlation Between Optical Fluorescence and Microwave Transmission During Single-cell Electroporation
      Electroporation is a widely used physical (as opposed to chemical or biological) method to enhance the permeability of a cell membrane, with the degree of enhancement determined by applied field magnitude, duration, frequency et al. Traditional electroporation is based on... Read more
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A New Image Similarity Metric for Improving Deformation Consistency in Graph Based Groupwise Image Registration
   In graph based groupwise image registration (G-GIR), a graph representing the input images is constructed using an image similarity metric (ISM). The ISM defines the graph edges that link image pairs. Similar images are connected via short edges. Based on... Read more
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Detection of Vesicoureteral Reflux using Electrical Impedance Tomography
       Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) is characterized by the backflow of urine from the bladder to the kidneys and is the most common congenital urinary tract abnormality in children. The condition predisposes children to urinary tract infections (UTIs) and kidney damage. Typically,... Read more
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Self-scanned HIFU ablation of moving tissue using real-time hybrid US-MR imaging
          High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) treatment in the abdominal cavity is challenging due to the respiratory motion. In the self-scanning HIFU ablation method the focal spot is kept static and the heating pattern is obtained through natural tissue motion. This... Read more
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Achieving Automated Organelle Biopsy on Small Single Cells Using a Cell Surgery Robotic System
       Studies on bulk tissues only provide a statistical average of several actions taken place in different cells. Single cell investigation may disclose further important and in-depth information. Single cell surgery such as manipulation or removal of subcellular components or/and organelles... Read more
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Sparse EEG Source Localization Using LAPPS: Least Absolute l -P (0 < p < 1) Penalized Solution
The ill-posed nature of electroencephalogram-EEG (or related magnetoencephalogram-MEG) poses a great challenge in neuroimaging. Considering that EEG electrode sensors measure the scalp potentials rather than directly measuring neural activities inside the head, a lot of research in recent years has... Read more
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Electrophysiological Brain Connectivity: Theory and Implementation
Brain function and dysfunction are encoded in networks within the brain that are distributed over 3-dimensional space and evolves in time. It is of great importance to image brain activation and functional connectivity which are the building blocks of neural... Read more
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Real-time Temperature Measurements of HMEC-1 Cells during Inflammation Production and Repair detected by Wireless Thermometry
Cell inflammation process is reflected through real-time in situ cellular temperature changes. A wireless thermometry system for in situ cellular temperature measurements was used in an incubator to detect the HMEC-1 cellular temperature under lipopolysaccharide inflammation production and norepinephrine for... Read more
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Reference-Based Integral MR-EPT: Simulation and Experiment Studies at 9.4T MRI
Current integral-equation (IE) based MR electrical properties tomography (EPT) methods utilize simulated incident radio-frequency (RF) fields, which are inaccurate and lead to reconstruction errors. To improve the accuracy and practicability of IE-based MR-EPT methods, a new approach is presented that... Read more
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Encapsulation Approaches for In-Stent Wireless Magnetoelastic Sensors
Prior work has shown that wireless magnetoelastic sensors can signal impending stent occlusion, thereby potentially avoiding the most lethal risks of the occlusion. Encapsulation of these sensors within the small inner lumen of the stent remains a critical challenge. The... Read more
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A Single-Scan Inhomogeneity-Tolerant NMR Method for High-Resolution 2D J-Resolved Spectroscopy
NMR spectroscopy serves as one of the most commonly used detection techniques with non-invasive properties. Particularly, 2D homonuclear J-resolved NMR spectroscopy, revealing chemical shifts and J couplings along two independent dimensions, has been widely applied to molecular conformational elucidation, metabolite... Read more
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Micro-coil Design Influences the Spatial Extent of Responses to Intracortical Magnetic Stimulation
Electrical stimulation via cortically-implanted electrodes has been proposed to treat a wide range of neurological disorders. Effectiveness has been limited however, in part due to the inability of conventional electrodes to activate specific types of neurons while avoiding other types.... Read more
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A Machine Learning Shock Decision Algorithm for use during Piston-driven Chest Compressions
High quality chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and an early defibrillation are key to improve outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Compressions must be interrupted for a reliable shock advice decision in the defibrillator because they induce artifacts in the... Read more
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In vivo Visualization of Vasculature in Adult Zebrafish by using High-Frequency Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging
Zebrafish has been recently considered an ideal vertebrate for studying developmental biology, genetics, particularly for modeling tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and regeneration in vivo. However, when a zebrafish matures completely, particularly if the specimen is from a wild-type line, stripes are evident... Read more
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Adaptive and Wireless Recordings of Electrophysiological Signals during Concurrent Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Simultaneous recordings of fMRI and electrophysiological signals, e.g. electroencephalography (EEG), electrocorticography (ECoG), and local field potentials (LFP), may help to bridge neural activity across various spatial and temporal scales. However, the MRI system is a hostile environment for recording bioelectric... Read more
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Wearable Devices for Precision Medicine and Health State Monitoring
   A key requirement for precision medicine is the ability to define clinically-relevant subgroups that enable improved patient management as well as the elucidation of disease mechanisms. The ability to define subgroups requires measurements with high information content and with a... Read more
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Patient-Specific Computational Simulations of Hyperpolarized 3He MRI Ventilation Defects in Healthy and Asthmatic Subjects
     Combined, medical imaging data and respiratory computer simulations may facilitate novel insight into pulmonary disease phenotypes, including the relationship between its structure and function. This integration may enable improved classification and treatment of severe asthma. Severe asthma (15% of asthmatics)... Read more
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Optogenetic Excitation of Ipsilesional Sensorimotor Neurons is Protective in Acute Ischemic Stroke: a Laser Speckle Imaging Study
     Brain stimulation has recently been reported to be a promising technique for stroke intervention through directly modulating the metabolism in brain. However, most brain stimulation techniques have limitations in precision and are not able to induce cell-specific modulation on the... Read more
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Epilepsy-on-a-chip System for Antiepileptic Drug Discovery
    Development of antiepileptic drugs is currently complicated by the long time course of epileptogenesis. This process occurs on a time scale of weeks to months in animal models, and takes up to two weeks in an in vitro organotypic hippocampal... Read more
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3D Measurements of Acceleration-Induced Brain Deformation via Harmonic Phase Analysis and Finite-Element Models
        Measuring brain deformation enables researchers to better understand traumatic brain injuries and to develop experimentally verified computer models to design and evaluate preventive strategies. Although motion can be observed using medical imaging, quantifying fast tissue deformation based on inertially-induced motion... Read more
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Generation of Patient-Specific Cardiac Vascular Networks: a Hybrid Image-Based and Synthetic Geometric Model
Image-based models derived from CT angiography are being used clinically to simulate blood flow in the coronary arteries of individual patients. However, image resolution limits vessel segmentation to the larger epicardial vessels. To simulate blood flow into the myocardium, generation... Read more
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A New Modeling Method to Characterize the Stance Control Function of Prosthetic Knee Joints
Biomechanical models can inform design and optimization of prosthetic devices by connecting empirically-derived biomechanical data to device design parameters. A new method is presented to characterize the function of prosthetic stance control under mobility conditions associated with activities of daily... Read more
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Quantification and Analysis of Laryngeal Closure from Endoscopic Videos
At present, there are no objective techniques to quantify and describe laryngeal obstruction, and the reproducibility of subjective manual quantification methods is insufficient, resulting in diagnostic inaccuracy and a poor signal-to-noise ratio in medical research. In this work, a workflow... Read more
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Smart Cell Culture Monitoring and Drug Test Platform Using CMOS Capacitive Sensor Array
Integrated Microfluidic-Microelectronic Systems have recently received significant interest, as a new paradigm in the design and implementation of chemical/biological analysis platforms, for both clinical and research purposes. This paper presents a novel method for monitoring drug cytotoxicity using a hybrid... Read more
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Acousto-optic Catheter Tracking Sensor for Interventional MRI Procedures
RF induced heating is a significant safety concern for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) especially when long metallic structures are inserted in the body during interventional MRI procedures. Current position tracking sensors used during interventional MRI rely on long conductor cables... Read more
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Non-invasive Treatment Efficacy Evaluation for HIFU Therapy Based on Magneto-Acousto-Electrical Tomography
As a newly developed non-invasive treatment approach, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has received considerable attention in the past decades due to the fast thermal coagulation of tumor cells. To ensure the treatment efficacy with minimized damage to the surrounding healthy... Read more
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Background Removal and Vessel Filtering of Non-Contrast Ultrasound Images of Microvasculature
Conventional ultrasound Doppler imaging using classic FIR and IIR wall filters prohibits visualization of the small vessels due to strong Fourier spectral overlap between tissue and blood echoes. A clutter removal method is proposed that utilizes spatiotemporal coherence of the... Read more
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Efficient Bronchoscopic Video Summarization
Bronchoscopy enables many minimally invasive chest procedures for diseases such as lung cancer and asthma. Guided by the bronchoscope’s video stream, a physician can navigate the complex three-dimensional (3-D) airway tree to collect tissue samples or administer a disease treatment.... Read more
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Predicting Athlete Ground Reaction Forces and Moments From Spatio-temporal Driven CNN Models
Conventional methods to generate ground reaction forces and moments (GRF/M) required for traditional inverse dynamics estimation of athlete joint forces and loads are confined to biomechanics laboratories far removed from the sporting field of play. This has been an ongoing... Read more
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Model-based Sparse-to-dense Image Registration for Realtime Respiratory Motion Estimation in Image-guided Interventions
Intra-interventional respiratory motion estimation is an essential part of modern radiation therapy delivery or high intensity focused ultrasound systems. The treatment quality could tremendously benefit from more accurate dose delivery using realtime motion tracking based on magnetic-resonance (MR) or ultrasound... Read more
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An Intracardiac Flow Based Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting Mechanism for Cardiac Pacing
Contemporary cardiac implantable electronic devices such as pacemakers or event recorders are powered by primary batteries. Device replacement due to battery depletion may cause complications and is costly. To overcome these limitations, a new energy harvesting device has been investigated... Read more
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A Portable Passive Rehabilitation Robot for Upper-Extremity Functional Resistance Training
Loss of arm function is common after neurological injuries, such as stroke or cerebral palsy. Robotic devices that address muscle strength deficits in a task-specific manner can assist in the recovery of arm function; however, current devices are typically too... Read more
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Learning Patterns of Pivoting Neuromuscular Control Training-Towards a Learning Model
Over the last decades, lower limb therapy using locomotion devices has gained popularity in clinics to improve lower limb functions; however, from these studies, how the learning patterns over the course of a long-term training program change are unknown. Especially,... Read more
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Model of Impedance Changes in Unmyelinated Nerve Fibres
Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a technique able to image electrical impedance changes (dZ) in tissue by injecting alternating current and recording surface voltages. EIT has been shown to be able to visualise impedance changes related to neuronal depolarization over... Read more
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An Automated Method for Multi-DOF Cell Rotational Control Contributing to Orientation-based Cell Surgery Applications
Orientation control of biological cells has gained much attention recently due to the fact that cell rotation is both a basic and vital cell micromanipulation technique involved in many orientation-based cell surgery applications. These applications include cell injection, preimplantation genetic... Read more
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A Method for Rapid, Reliable, and Low-Volume Measurement of Lithium in Blood for Use in Bipolar Disorder Treatment Management
Bipolar Disorder (BD) can seriously impair a person’s life if not effectively treated. Lithium (Li) offers the most successful long-term management of BD, but it entails a considerable risk to the patient if not closely monitored to ensure concentrations are... Read more
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Video Magnification Applied in Ultrasound
Biological tissues such as the myocardium or the artery walls are subject to fast and complex phenomena which are related to their physical properties (geometry, composition, stiffness, etc.) as well as their function. Imaging these characteristics is essential from a... Read more
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Wireless thermometry for real-time temperature recording on thousand-cell level
It is vitally necessary to measure the cellular temperature to fully understand life sciences. A method allowing to measure the cellular temperature for a normal growing state without doing damage to the cells and disturbing their intercellular communication is needed.... Read more
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Medical Image Synthesis with Deep Convolutional Adversarial Networks
Medical imaging plays a critical role in various clinical applications. However, due to multiple considerations such as cost and radiation dose, the acquisition of certain image modalities may be limited. Thus, medical image synthesis can be of great benefit by... Read more
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RF Channel Modeling for Implant-to-Implant Communication and Implant to Sub-Cutaneous Implant Communication for Future Leadless Cardiac Pacemakers
The increase in functional sophistication and complexity of implantable medical devices has resulted in the need for facilitating communication between one implanted device and another and/or external devices such as monitoring device and programming console. But, propagation of radio-frequency (RF)... Read more
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Is EMG a Viable Alternative to BCI for Detecting Movement Intention in Severe Stroke?
EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) has been used to detect movement intention in severely affected stroke patients during assisted therapy, but current EEG-BCI systems are not practical for routine clinical use. If detectable in this population, residual EMG in the target... Read more
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Distortion Distribution of Neural Spike Train Sequence Matching with Optogenetics
Optogenetics, named “Breakthrough of the Decade” by Science Magazine, gives scientists the ability to directly control individual neurons with pulses of light. The technique involves genetic modification of neurons, causing them to express light-sensitive proteins called opsins. When exposed to... Read more
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Three-Dimensional Brain-Computer Interface Control through Simultaneous Overt Spatial Attentional and Motor Imagery Tasks
Brain-computer interfacing (BCI) is a promising method for providing alternative connections between the brain and the outside world in concert with natural connections or re-establishing natural limb movement in cases where these have been potentially disrupted by disease or injury.... Read more
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Ballistocardiogram-Based Approach to Cuff-Less Blood Pressure Monitoring: Proof-of-Concept and Potential Challenges
The goal of this study was to propose and establish the proof-of-concept of an ultra-convenient cuffless blood pressure (BP) monitoring approach based on the ballistocardiogram (BCG).  The proposed approach monitors systolic and diastolic BP (SP and DP) independently by exploiting... Read more
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Real-Time Blood Pressure Estimation From Force-Measured Ultrasound
Common techniques to measure blood pressure include an arterial catheter, an oscillometric pressure cuff, or an auscultatory pressure cuff. Oscillometric and auscultatory cuffs have an associated error, cannot be used continuously, and fully collapse the brachial artery. An auscultatory cuff... Read more
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Bi-Modal Arterial Compliance Probe for Calibration-Free Cuffless Blood Pressure Estimation
Non-invasive measurement of Blood Pressure (BP) has well-established utility in screening, clinical diagnosis and patient follow-up for a variety of critical disease conditions. Each usage scenario of BP poses unique functional requirements and challenges. The emerging field of non-invasive, cuffless... Read more
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Cuffless Estimation of Blood Pressure: Importance of Variability in Blood Pressure Dependence of Arterial Stiffness Across Individuals and Measurement Sites
Measuring arterial pulse transit time (PTT) to estimate blood pressure (BP) without conventional brachial cuff-based measurement is not new, but is a focus of current wearable technologies research. Much research pertains to efficient, accurate sensing of artery-related waveforms, yet the... Read more
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Information-Theoretic Approach and Fundamental Limits of Resolving Two Closely-Timed Neuronal Spikes in Mouse Brain Calcium Imaging
Calcium imaging has become a standard tool in neuroscience to record neural activity over large populations of neurons. Calcium sensor kinetics and signal-to-noise ratio significantly impact the precision of spike time estimation and spike detectability from the recorded optical signals.... Read more
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Electromagnetic Brain Source Imaging by Means of a Robust Minimum Variance Beamformer
Adaptive beamformer methods have been used extensively for functional brain imaging using EEG/MEG surface recordings. However, the sensitivity of beamformers to model mismatches impedes their widespread application, in practice. In this study, we propose a state-of-the-art technique, termed robust minimum... Read more
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Model-Based Analysis of Electrode Placement and Pulse Amplitutde for Hippocampal Stimulation
A brain implant performs best when it is properly adapted to the anatomy of the region with which it is meant to interface. Multiple-electrode arrays provide a system which can be adapted to various tissue geometries. Computational models of stimulating... Read more
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Topological Properties of the Structural Brain Network in Autism via ε-neighbor Method
When a structural brain network is constructed by the existing parcellation methods such as the automated anatomical labeling (AAL), the topological properties of the network change depending on the scale of parcellation and arbitrary connectivity matrix thresholding. To overcome these... Read more
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Accelerated Cardiac Diffusion Tensor Imaging Using Joint Low-Rank and Sparsity Constraints
Cardiac diffusion tensor imaging (CDTI) is a non-contrast-enhanced, non-invasive technique that shows great promise in assessing myofiber orientation and organization, thus offering insight to the pathophysiological fiber dynamics of various cardiovascular diseases. However, it is yet to be clinically practical... Read more
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Automated In Vivo Sub-Hertz Analysis of Viscoelasticity (SAVE) for Evaluation of Breast Lesions
Many breast tumors found by palpation manifest as stiff masses. The stiffness of tumor is related to a mechanical property known as elasticity. Elastography methods use tissue elasticity as a biomarker to provide invaluable information that improves classification of the... Read more
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Deformable Image Registration Using Cue-aware Deep Regression Network
Modern medical image analysis often has to deal with large-scale multi-center data, which requires the deformable registration satisfy the data diversity in clinical applications. We propose a novel deformable registration method, which is based on a cue-aware deep regression network,... Read more
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A Cascaded Deep Convolutional Neural Network for Joint Segmentation and Genotype Prediction of Brainstem Gliomas
Brainstem gliomas (BSGs) are a cancerous glioma tumor that occur in the brainstem. Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) account for 80% of BSGs in children and 45~50% in adults. Nearly 80% of pediatric DIPGs are induced by reprogramming the histone... Read more
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Estimating Brain Connectivity with Varying-Length Time Lags Using a Recurrent Neural Network
Computer-aided estimation of brain connectivity aims to reveal information propagation in brain automatically, which has great potential in clinical applications, e.g. epilepsy foci diagnosis. Granger causality is an effective tool for directional connection analysis in multivariate time series. However, most... Read more
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Automatic Recognition of fMRI-derived Functional Networks using 3D Convolutional Neural Networks
Current fMRI data modeling techniques such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Sparse Coding methods can effectively reconstruct dozens or hundreds of concurrent interacting functional brain networks simultaneously from the whole brain fMRI signals. However, such reconstructed networks have no... Read more
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Decoding Covert Somatosensory Attention by a BCI System Calibrated With Tactile Sensation
Objective: We propose a novel calibration strategy to facilitate the decoding of covert somatosensory attention by exploring the oscillatory dynamics induced by tactile sensation. Methods: It was hypothesized that the similarity of the oscillatory pattern between stimulation sensation (SS, real... Read more
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Feasibility of Automatic Error Detect-and-Undo System in Human Intracortical Brain-Computer Interfaces
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) aim to help people with paralysis to improve their communication and independence. Intracortical BCIs (iBCIs) have shown promising results in pilot clinical trials. Despite the performance improvements over the last decades, BCI systems still make errors that... Read more
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Fusing Partial Camera Signals for Non-Contact Pulse Rate Variability Measurement
Remote camera-based measurement of physiology has great potential for healthcare and affective computing. Recent advances in computer vision and signal processing have enabled photoplethysmography (PPG) measurement using commercially-available cameras. However, there remain challenges in recovering accurate non-contact PPG measurements in... Read more
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Skull Modeling Effects in Conductivity Estimates Using Parametric Electrical Impedance Tomography
We estimate scalp, skull, compact bone and marrow bone electrical conductivity values using Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) measurements and assess the influence of skull modeling details on the estimates. We collected high density EIT data with 128- and 256-channel EEG... Read more
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Localization of Origins of Premature Ventricular Contraction by Means of Convolutional Neural Network from 12-lead ECG
Objective: This paper proposes a novel method to localize origins of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) from 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) using convolutional neural network (CNN) and a realistic computer heart model. Methods: The proposed method consists of two CNNs (Segment CNN... Read more
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Screening for Cognitive Impairment by Model Assisted Cerebral Blood Flow Estimation
Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive and debilitating neurodegenerative disease; one in ten people aged 65 and older have it. As there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, early diagnosis is crucial so that mitigating treatments can be initiated as soon... Read more
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Unambiguous Identification and Visualization of an Acoustically Active Catheter by Ultrasound Imaging in Real Time: Theory, Algorithm, and Phantom Experiments
Ultrasound-guided navigation of intracardiac catheters during minimally invasive procedures can be challenging due to the inability of B-mode ultrasound to distinguish the distal end of catheter from its body and the surrounding tissue. To better visualize the distal tip and... Read more
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Computerized Lung Sound Screening for Pediatric Auscultation in Noisy Field Environments
Chest auscultations offer a non-invasive and low-cost tool for monitoring lung disease. However, they present many shortcomings, including inter-listener variability, subjectivity, and vulnerability to noise and distortions. This work proposes a computer-aided approach to process lung signals acquired in the... Read more
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Computationally Efficient Algorithms for Sparse, Dynamic Solutions to the EEG Source Localization Problem
Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography noninvasively record scalp electromagnetic fields generated by cerebral currents, revealing millisecond-level brain dynamics useful for neuroscience and clinical applications. Estimating the currents that generate these fields, i.e., source localization, is an ill-conditioned inverse problem. Solutions to... Read more
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Micromagnetic Stimulation of the Mouse Auditory Cortex In Vivo Using an Implantable Solenoid System
Electromagnetic stimulation is widely used to activate the peripheral and central nervous system and treat neurological disorders. However, they have several drawbacks such as their large device size and poor focality. Recent studies have reported that micromagnetic stimulation (µMS), which... Read more
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A Functional-genetic Scheme for Seizure Forecasting in Canine Epilepsy
Epilepsy is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent, spontaneous, and unpredictable seizures resulting from the abnormal and excessive synchronization of groups of neurons. While first line of treatment consists of anti-epileptic medication, about a third of patients are refractory. Epilepsy... Read more
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In-Ear Audio Wearable: Measurement of Heart and Breathing Rates for Health and Safety Monitoring
This paper examines the integration of a noninvasive vital sign monitoring feature into the workers’ hearing protection devices (HPDs) by using a microphone positioned within the earcanal under the HPD. Twenty-five test-subjects were asked to breathe at various rhythms and intensities... Read more
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A Brain–Computer Interface Based on Miniature-Event-Related Potentials Induced by Very Small Lateral Visual Stimuli
Traditional visual brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) was faced with the dilemma of whether or not to use large-size visual stimuli to code instructions. On the one hand, to overcome the noisy electroencephalography (EEG) environment, scientists preferred to use strong visual stimuli... Read more
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Stimulation Efficiency With Decaying Exponential Waveforms in a Wirelessly Powered Switched-Capacitor Discharge Stimulation System
Implantable pulse generators (IPGs) that use a switched-capacitor discharge stimulation (SCDS) system and are wirelessly powered via an inductive transcutaneous link can be made significantly smaller than conventional IPGs powered by implantable batteries. The SCDS system is more energy-efficient at... Read more
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Ear-EEG-Based Objective Hearing Threshold Estimation Evaluated on Normal Hearing Subjects
Integration of auditory evoked potential techniques in hearing aids potentially enable assessment of the users hearing on a regular basis. Hearing threshold levels can be estimated in the clinic using the objective EEG-based technique of auditory steady state response (ASSR).... Read more
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Limb Position Tolerant Pattern Recognition for Myoelectric Prosthesis Control with Adaptive Sparse Representations from Extreme Learning
Electromyogram (EMG) signals can be used to decode the intended movements of an amputee for control of a dexterous upper-limb prosthesis. However, normal prosthesis use involves changes in upper-limb positions that influence the EMG signals, hindering the ability of pattern... Read more
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Optimization-Based Image Reconstruction from Low-Count, List-Mode TOF-PET Data
Time-of-flight (TOF) positron-emission tomography (PET) has increasingly been adopted as an important quantitative imaging tool in basic and clinical applications. Improving image quality via advanced image reconstruction methods remains an area of active interest. In particular, it is of practical... Read more
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A Novel Telemanipulated Robotic Assistant for Surgical Endoscopy: Preclinical Application to ESD
Intraluminal surgery is a very attracting technique for surgical procedures in the digestive tract because they limit trauma, avoid any visible scar for the patient and allow direct access to pathology. However, these are very demanding techniques for surgeons when... Read more
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Real-Time 3D Microwave Monitoring of Interstitial Thermal Therapy
Minimally invasive thermal treatments, such as microwave ablation, have emerged as safer, faster, and more precise alternatives to surgery for many soft tissue cancers, including liver and kidney. Their efficacy and applicability to higher-risk cases (e.g., close proximity to blood... Read more
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Effect of Tissue Heterogeneity on the Transmembrane Potential of Type-1 Spiral Ganglion Neurons: A Simulation Study
Electric field applied by cochlear implants stimulates the intact type-1 spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in the Rosenthal’s canal of the human cochlea. As a result, transmembrane potential of the SGNs exceeds threshold value and fires the action potential through the... Read more
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Mechanical Imaging of Soft Tissues with a Highly Compliant Tactile Sensing Array
The mechanical imaging of lumps in tissues via surface measurements can permit the noninvasive detection of disease-related differences in body tissues, and can aid the documentation of tissue changes over time. This has motivated the development of new electronic sensing... Read more
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Novel Quantitative Analytical Approaches for Rotor Identification and Associated Implications for Mapping
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in humans, which is believed to be maintained by rapid reentry sources (rotors). One treatment option is catheter ablation, which targets the tissue responsible for the AF initiation and maintenance,... Read more
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A Three-Dimensional Arrayed Microfluidic Blood–Brain Barrier Model With Integrated Electrical Sensor Array
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) poses a unique challenge to the development of therapeutics against neurological disorders due to its impermeability to most chemical compounds. Most in vitro BBB models have limitations in mimicking in vivo conditions and functions. Here we... Read more
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Enhancement of Intercellular Electrical Synchronization by Conductive Materials in Cardiac Tissue Engineering
Myocardial infarction, due to interruption of blood supply to part of the myocardium, often results in massive loss of cardiomyocytes that are difficult to regenerate intrinsically, which further impairs synchronization of cardiac tissue and causes cardiac arrhythmias. In parallel with... Read more
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Spatial Position Measurement System for Surgical Navigation Using 3-D Image Marker-Based Tracking Tools With Compact Volume
Surgical navigation is critical in assisting surgeons in confirming the spatial positions of surgical instruments and patients in minimally invasive surgery. Traditional tracking systems in surgical navigation have different types, from marker-based optical tracking to magnetic tracking systems. As a... Read more
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New Year Message From the Editor-in-Chief
HAPPY New Year and welcome to 2018! IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering (TBME) remains healthy and strong, with many of the journal’s metrics reaching a historical high heading into the new year. I would like to thank all of you... Read more
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In Vivo Superresolution Imaging of Neuronal Structure in the Mouse Brain
Optical microscopy is an indispensable technique for investigating neuronal morphology and dynamics due to the high spatial and temporal resolution granted by light. However, neuronal morphology and structural changes occur on scales beyond the optical resolution of canonical microscopy technologies.... Read more
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Near-field Inductive Coupling Link To Power a Three-Dimensional Millimeter-Size Antenna for Brain Implantable Medical Devices
Near-field inductive coupling link can establish a reliable power source to a battery-less implantable medical device based on Faraday’s law of induction. In this paper, the design, modeling and experimental verification of an inductive coupling link between an off-body loop... Read more
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Simultaneous Measurement of Multiple Mechanical Properties of Single Cells Using AFM by Indentation and Vibration
Cells, as the elementary units of living organisms, are regulated and governed by genes, biological processes and various microenvironments, and their status reflects the organism’s physiological situation and affects the biological function of the whole body. Moreover, recent studies have... Read more
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Structured Learning for 3D Perivascular Spaces Segmentation Using Vascular Features
Perivascular spaces (PVSs), which are also known as Virchow-Robin spaces, are cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) filled spaces ensheathing small blood vessels as they penetrate the brain parenchyma. The clinical significance of PVSs comes primarily from their tendency to dilate in abnormal... Read more
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Model-Based Estimation of Respiratory Parameters from Capnography, with Application to Diagnosing Obstructive Lung Disease
Capnography is the noninvasive and effort-independent measurement of carbon dioxide concentration in exhaled breath, as a function of time or exhaled volume. Time-based capnography – the focus of this paper – is widely used in ambulances and hospitals. However, its quantitative... Read more
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Electrical Impedance Tomography: Tissue Properties to Image Measures
Interpretation of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) -based measures is complex. This review focuses on clarifying the various processes starting from the tissue electrical properties, through to diagnostic EIT measures, in order to support accurate interpretation of EIT results. The image... Read more
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Software Toolbox for Low-frequency Conductivity and Current Density Imaging using MRI
A software toolbox for low-frequency conductivity and current density imaging using MRI is now available from http://iirc.khu.ac.kr/software.html. This MR-based conductivity imaging (MRCI) toolbox includes Matlab functions for image reconstructions in magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT), diffusion tensor MREIT (DTMREIT), conductivity... Read more
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Electrical Properties Tomography Based on B1 Maps in MRI: Principles, Applications, and Challenges
Electrical properties (EPs), namely conductivity and permittivity, are fundamental properties of materials, describing their capability to transfer electrical current or store energy of the electrical field inside the media. In biological tissue, there is a close relationship between EPs and... Read more
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Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) Algorithms: Mathematical Rationale and Computational Implementations
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method that enables quantitative investigation of the tissue magnetic susceptibility, which has been applied to a wide range of biomedical problems. Algorithmically, QSM solves the magnetic field-to-magnetization (tissue susceptibility)... Read more
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Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Gastric Emptying and Motility in Rats
The assessment of gastric emptying and motility in humans and animals typically requires radioactive imaging or invasive measurements. Here, we developed a robust strategy to image and characterize gastric emptying and motility in rats based on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging... Read more
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Design and Characterization of an Exoskeleton for Perturbing the Knee During Gait
The human knee joint displays a wide range of mechanical behaviors, enabling efficient and robust locomotion under varying conditions. With the rise of active and semi-active knee assistive devices (e.g., prostheses and orthoses), there is a need to quantify the... Read more
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A Subspace Approach to Spectral Quantification for MR Spectroscopic Imaging
Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) has been recognized as a potentially powerful tool for label-free in vivo molecular imaging. Spectral quantification is an essential step in deriving quantitative molecular information from experimental MRSI data. However, obtaining accurate spectral estimates is... Read more
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Performance Assessment of a Custom, Portable, and Low-Cost Brain-Computer Interface Platform
Conventional brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are often expensive, complex to operate, and lack portability, which confines their use to laboratory settings. Portable, inexpensive BCIs can mitigate these problems, but it remains unclear whether their low-cost design compromises their performance. Therefore, we... Read more
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Robust Estimation of Sparse Narrowband Spectra from Neuronal Spiking Data
Characterizing the spectral properties of neuronal responses is an important problem in computational neuroscience as it provides insight into the spectral organization of the underlying functional neural processes. Although spectral analysis techniques are widely used in the analysis of noninvasive... Read more
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Non-Invasive Personalisation of a Cardiac Electrophysiology Model from Body Surface Potential Mapping
We use non-invasive data (body surface potential mapping, BSPM) to personalize the main parameters of a cardiac electrophysiological model for predicting the response to different pacing conditions. First, an efficient forward model is proposed, coupling the Mitchell-Schaeffer transmembrane potential model with... Read more
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Glucose Monitoring in Individuals With Diabetes Using a Long-Term Implanted Sensor/Telemetry System and Model
  Diabetes is a disease that is growing worldwide.  Glucose control is central to all therapies for diabetes and achieving control requires monitoring glucose concentration. We have developed a fully implanted sensor/telemetry system consisting of two electrochemical oxygen sensors, one with... Read more
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Improvement of Pyramidal Tract Side Effect Prediction Using a Data-Driven Method in Subthalamic Stimulation
Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) is limited by the occurrence of pyramidal tract side effect (PTSE) induced by electrical activation of the pyramidal tract. Predictive models are needed to assist the surgeon during the electrode trajectory pre-planning. The... Read more
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Assessing the Benefits of Drug Delivery by Nanocarriers: A Partico/Pharmacokinetic Framework
Nanocarriers, including solid nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, and polymer micelles, are regarded as promising vehicles for targeted drug delivery, particularly for anticancer agents. Here, an in vivo kinetic framework is introduced to analyze and predict the quantitative advantage of using nanocarriers... Read more
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Prediction of Atherosclerotic Plaque Development in an In Vivo Coronary Arterial Segment Based on a Multilevel Modeling Approach
Coronary heart disease is considered one of the most common causes of death in west societies. The recent years low endothelial shear stress calculated using computational fluid dynamics has been found to be related with atherosclerotic plaque progression. However, until... Read more
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Shape Sensing Techniques for Continuum Robots in Minimally Invasive Surgery: A Survey
Continuum robots provide inherent structural compliance with high dexterity to access the surgical target sites along tortuous anatomical paths under constrained environments, and enable to perform complex and delicate operations through small incisions in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). These advantages... Read more
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High Quality See-Through Surgical Guidance System Using Enhanced 3D Autostereoscopic Augmented Reality
Pre-/intraoperative diagnosis images in minimally invasive surgery can provide necessary guidance for therapy, hand–eye discoordination occurs when guidance information is displayed away from the surgical area. Three-dimensional (3-D) and augmented reality (AR) visualization techniques can provide better judgement and faster... Read more
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A BCI-based Environmental Control System for Patients with Severe Spinal Cord Injuries
An important application of EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) is environmental control, which can improve the quality of life for paralyzed patients. However, most of the existing BCI-based environmental control systems were designed for the control of a single device without... Read more
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A Review of In-Body Biotelemetry Devices: Implantables, Ingestibles, and Injectables
Wireless medical devices used to sense physiological parameters (sensors) and/or stimulate the nervous system (stimulators) are becoming increasingly popular. In fact, 27% of Americans already use some sort of wearable device, such as a smart watch that records heart rate... Read more
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Passive BCI in Operational Environments: Insights, Recent Advances and Future Trends
Because of the increasing complexity of automation, the act of monitoring and intervening on the system is becoming very demanding for humans, especially when they are overwhelmed with multiple sources of information on the same perceptual channels, e.g., two visual... Read more
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Automated Compression Device for Viscoelasticity Imaging
Such a device should be lightweight, portable and easy to use for patient studies to capture tissue dynamics under external stress. We present the design of an automated compression device for studying the creep response of materials with tissue-like behaviors.... Read more
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Evaluation of Mobile Phone Performance for Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging
Mobile phone technology represents a novel platform for optical imaging that may have significant advantages for telemedicine, global health, emergency response and military medicine applications.  Several clinical optical devices based on mobile phones have been developed, including those performing visible... Read more
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System Integration and In Vivo Testing of a Robot for Ultrasound Guidance and Monitoring During Radiotherapy
Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) involves two main steps: (1) planning/simulation using computerized tomography (CT) imaging and (2) fractionated treatment delivery using a linear accelerator (LINAC). These are performed on different days and in different rooms; thus it is necessary to... Read more
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M3BA: A Mobile, Modular, Multimodal Biosignal Acquisition architecture for miniaturized EEG-NIRS based hybrid BCI and monitoring
For the further development of the fields of telemedicine, neurotechnology and Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI), advances in hybrid multimodal signal acquisition and processing technology are invaluable. Currently, there are no commonly available hybrid devices combining bio-electrical and bio-optical neurophysiological measurements –... Read more
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Simple T Wave Metrics May Better Predict Early Ischemia as Compared to ST Segment
There is a pressing clinical need to identify developing heart attack (infarction) in patients as early as possible. However, current state-of-the-art tools in clinical practice, which are often underpinned by evaluation of elevation of the ST-segment of the 12-lead electrocardiogram,... Read more
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A Subspace Approach to the Structural Decomposition and Identification of Ankle Joint Dynamic Stiffness
The torque developed at a joint in response to a position change arises from both neural and mechanical mechanisms. Torques initiated by mechanical mechanisms, i.e. intrinsic torque, arise from the mechanical properties of the joint and tissues. Torques generated by... Read more
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In-Vivo Electrophysiological Study of Induced Ventricular Tachycardia in Intact Rat Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure
Ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation are the most common causes of sudden cardiac death in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Furthermore, as the next generation of therapeutics for heart failure is developed, it is increasingly important to have reliable... Read more
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Orientation Independent Catheter-Based Characterization of Myocardial Activation
Cardiac electrogram (EGM) signals and electrophysiologic (EP) characteristics derived from them such as amplitude and timing are central to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of arrhythmias. Bipolar EGMs are often used but possess polarity and shape dependence on catheter orientation... Read more
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Spatially Coherent Activation Maps for Electrocardiographic Imaging
Electrocardiographic imaging (ECGi) is an emerging non-invasive technique that computes unipolar electrograms (EGMs) at the epicardial surface from high-density body-surface ECG recordings and torso anatomy. Activation mapping is an important post-processing step that allows the user to make sense of these... Read more
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SVM-Based System for Prediction of Epileptic Seizures From iEEG Signal
This paper describes a data-analytic modeling approach for the prediction of epileptic seizures from intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) recording of brain activity. Even though it is widely accepted that statistical characteristics of iEEG signal change prior to seizures, robust seizure prediction... Read more
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Development and Phantom Validation of a 3-D-Ultrasound-Guided System for Targeting MRI-Visible Lesions During Transrectal Prostate Biopsy
Three- (3-) and four-dimensional (4D) endorectal ultrasound are now available from most major ultrasound equipment manufacturers, but have been rarely deployed within prostate biopsy guidance systems despite the benefit of rapid volumetric imaging. The most common type of 3/4D transducers... Read more
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A High-Performance Neural Prosthesis Incorporating Discrete State Selection with Hidden Markov Models
Communication neural prostheses aim to restore efficient communication to people with paralysis and ALS.  These systems record neural signals from the brain and translate them, through a decoder algorithm, into control signals for moving an end effector.  In our study,... Read more
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High-Resolution Electrogastrogram: A Novel, Noninvasive Method for Determining Gastric Slow-Wave Direction and Speed
Although the importance of gastrointestinal (GI) health is increasingly recognized, the lack of a robust, non-invasive system for objective GI electrophysiologic assessment hinders complete understanding of the impact of GI in health and disease.  Novel approaches to diagnose and understand... Read more
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Characterization of a Honeycomb-like Scaffold with Dielectrophoresis-based Patterning for Tissue Engineering
Seeding and patterning of cells with an engineered scaffold is a critical process in artificial tissue construction and regeneration. To date, many engineered scaffolds exhibit simple intrinsic designs, which fail to mimic the geometrical complexity of native tissues. In this... Read more
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Predicting The Influence of Microvascular Structure On Tumour Response to Radiotherapy
Tumour cells are less responsive to radiotherapy in low oxygen environments. Oxygen availability depends on the structure of the supplying microvessel network. Previous studies have used mathematical modelling to predict tumour response to radiotherapy for different network morphologies, but have... Read more
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Stem Cell Plasticity and Niche Dynamics in Cancer Progression
Cancer stem cells are believed to be the sole initiator and driver of tumor growth, given their self-renewal and tissue restoration properties. Their eradication may offer the ultimate in targeted tumor treatment. In this paper we challenge the strict hierarchical... Read more
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Multiscale Modeling of Glioblastoma Suggests that the Partial Disruption of Vessel/Cancer Stem Cell Crosstalk Can Promote Tumor Regression without Increasing Invasiveness
In glioblastoma, the crosstalk between vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and glioma stem cells (GSCs) has been shown to enhance tumor growth. We develop a hybrid continuum-discrete mathematical model and show that the VEC-GSC crosstalk increases both tumor size and GSC... Read more
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The Role of the Tumor Microenvironment in Glioblastoma: A Mathematical Model
Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the deadliest cancers, in part because tumor cells rapidly migrate to the surrounding brain tissue, thereby making the tumor difficult to treat. Microglia are immune cells that, in their normal phenotype M1, kill intracellular micro-organisms... Read more
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Aggregation Effects and Population-Based Dynamics as a Source of Therapy Resistance in Cancer
A flock of starlings responding to the approach of a peregrine illustrates how interactions of an individual with other members of a group may provide advantages against an external threat. Cancer cells, which are often densely clustered together, may use... Read more
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A Biocompatible Near-Infrared 3D Tracking System
A fundamental challenge in soft-tissue surgery is that target tissue moves and deforms, becomes occluded by blood or other tissue, and is difficult to differentiate from surrounding tissue. To overcome these problems, we developed biocompatible near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) markers with... Read more
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-Omic and Electronic Health Record Big Data Analytics for Precision Medicine
Po-Yen Wu, Chih-Wen Cheng, Chanchala D. Kaddi, Janani Venugopalan, Ryan Hoffman, and May D. Wang, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University This article reviews big data analytics that are essential for precision medicine. The advancement of high-throughput -omic assays and computerized health... Read more
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Channel Modeling of Miniaturized Battery-Powered Capacitive Human Body Communication Systems
Jiwoong Park, Harinath Garudadri, and Patrick P. Mercier, University of California San Diego, USA The purpose of this contribution is to estimate the path loss of capacitive human body communication (HBC) systems under practical conditions. Most prior work utilized large, grounded instruments... Read more
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Apnea-Hypopnea Index Prediction Using Electrocardiogram Acquired During Sleep-Onset Period
Da Woon Jung, Su Hwan Hwang, Yu Jin Lee, Do-Un Jeong, and Kwang Suk Park, Seoul National University, Korea With the increase in obesity and the ageing population, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been considered a serious clinical concern. For the... Read more
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4-D Flow Control in Porous Scaffolds: Toward a Next Generation of Bioreactors
The development of stable, functional tissue is a challenge in regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering (TE) approaches that involve seeding cells into pre-determined tissue scaffolds ignore the complex environment where the material properties are spatially inhomogeneous and evolve over time. The... Read more
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Optical Detection of Ultrasound in Photoacoustic Imaging
Photoacoustic (PA) imaging offers unique capabilities in studying biological tissue based on optical absorption contrast. The sensitivity and bandwidth in detecting laser-induced ultrasonic signals are crucial for attaining high-quality and high-resolution PA images. Detectors made from piezoelectric materials are commonly... Read more
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Compound Radar Approach for Breast Imaging
Microwave radar imaging is a breast imaging modality which exploits the contrasting dielectric properties at tissue boundaries to create a representative 3D energy profile. Multistatic radar apertures record scattering at a number of receivers when the target is illuminated by... Read more
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Epileptogenic Source Imaging Using Cross Frequency Coupled Signals from Scalp EEG
Chunsheng Li, Daniel Jacobs, Trevor Hilton, Martin del Campo, Yotin Chinvarun, Peter L Carlen, and Berj L Bardakjian, University of Toronto, Canada. The epileptogenic zone (EZ) is a brain region containing the sources of seizure genesis. Removal of the EZ is... Read more
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Noninvasive Electromagnetic Source Imaging and Granger Causality Analysis: An Electrophysiological Connectome (eConnectome) Approach
Abbas Sohrabpour, Shuai Ye, Gregory Worrell, Wenbo Zhang, Bin He, University of Minnesota, USA Electromagnetic source imaging (ESI) techniques are very efficient in determining the foci of activity from surface electromagnetic measurements such as EEG and MEG. However, due to the... Read more
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Electrical Stimulation of the Human Cerebral Cortex by Extracranial Muscle Activity: Effect Quantification with Intracranial EEG and FEM Simulations
Lukas D.J. Fiederer, Jacob Lahr, Johannes Vorwerk, Felix Lucka, Ad Aertsen, Carsten H. Wolters, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Tonio Ball, University of Freiburg, Germany, University of Münster, Germany, University of Utah, USA, University College London, England Multiple studies have shown that chewing has various effects... Read more
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Time-Frequency Strategies for Increasing High-Frequency Oscillation Detectability in Intracerebral EEG
Nicolas Roehri, Jean-Marc Lina, John C. Mosher, Fabrice Bartolomei, and Christian-George Bénar, Institut de Neurosciences des Systèmes & Clinical Neurophysiology, Marseille, France, École de technologie supérieure, Canada, Cleveland Clinic Neurological Institute, USA High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are considered to be highly representative of brain tissues capable... Read more
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Fast Electromagnetic Analysis of MRI Transmit RF Coils based on Accelerated Integral Equation Methods
Jorge Fernández Villena, Athanasios G. Polimeridis, Yigitcan Eryaman, Elfar Adalsteinsson, Lawrence L. Wald, Jacob K. White, and Luca Daniel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Minnesota, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences Technology, USA, This work presents an efficient full-wave frequency-domain electromagnetic simulation... Read more
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One-Day Bayesian Cloning of Type 1 Diabetes Subjects: Towards a Single-Day UVA/Padova Type 1 Diabetes Simulator
Roberto Visentin, Chiara Dalla Man, and Claudio Cobelli, University of Padova, Italy The UVA/Padova Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM) Simulator has been shown to be representative of a T1DM population observed in a clinical trial, but has not yet been identified on T1DM... Read more
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Steering of Magnetic Devices using a Magnetic Particle Imaging System
N. Nothnagel, J. Rahmer, B. Gleich, A. Halkola, T.M. Buzug, J. Borgert, University of Lübeck, Philips Technologie GmbH, Germany. Magnetic manipulation is a promising approach that enables contact-free manipulation of devices inside a patient. By controlling magnetic forces, new medical applications become possible,... Read more
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Scattering and Diffraction of Elastodynamic Waves in a Concentric Cylindrical Phantom for MR Elastography
Benjamin L. Schwartz, Ziying Yin, Temel K. Yaşar, Yifei Liu, Altaf A. Khan, Allen Q. Ye, Thomas J. Royston, and Richard L. Magin, University of Illinois, USA The mechanical properties of biologic tissue are often correlated to their relative states of health,... Read more
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Automatic Quantification of Radiographic Finger Joint Space Width of Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis
Yinghe Huo, Koen L. Vincken, Désirée van der Heijde, Maria J.H. De Hair, Floris P. Lafeber, and Max A. Viergever, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands Currently, the assessment of joint space width (JSW) on hand X-ray images of patients suffering... Read more
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Full Body Musculoskeletal Model for Muscle-Driven Simulation of Human Gait
Rajagopal, Christopher L. Dembia, Matthew S. DeMers, Denny D. Delp, Jennifer L. Hicks, and Scott L. Delp, Stanford University Human movement involves complex interactions between the neuromuscular and skeletal systems, many components of which cannot be easily measured in a laboratory setting.... Read more
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How Modeling Standards, Software, and Initiatives Support Reproducibility in Systems Biology and Systems Medicine
Dagmar Waltemath and Olaf Wolkenhauer, University of Rostock, Germany. Most scientific discoveries build upon previous or other findings. The discovery process therefore relies heavily on the reproducibility of scientific results. A lack of transparency and openness led to what many consider a... Read more
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Electrophysiological Source Imaging of Brain Networks Perturbed by Low-Intensity Transcranial Focused Ultrasound
Kai Yu, Abbas Sohrabpour, Bin He, University of Minnesota, USA Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) has been introduced as a noninvasive neuromodulation technique with good spatial selectivity. However, there is an unanswered question of whether low-intensity tFUS (much lower than FDA’s regulations)... Read more
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A Spiking Neural Network Methodology and System for Learning and Comparative Analysis of EEG Data from Healthy Versus Addiction Treated Versus Addiction Not Treated Subjects
Maryam Gholami Doborjeh, Grace Y. Wang, Nikola K. Kasabov, Robert Kydd, Bruce Russell Inspired by a biologically realistic model of the brain that processes dynamic input information across a large number of spiking neurons, we propose a novel neurocomputing development system,... Read more
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Detection Algorithm of Phase Singularity Using Phase Variance Analysis for Epicardial Optical Mapping Data
Naoki Tomii, Masatoshi Yamazaki, Tatsuhiko Arafune, Haruo Honjo, Nitaro Shibata and Ichiro Sakuma, University of Tokyo, Nagoya University, Tokyo Denki University, Mitsui Building Clinic, Japan Spiral wave is presumed to play a significant role in irregular cardiac rhythms such as ventricular tachycardia... Read more
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A Novel Algorithm for Remote Photoplethysmography: Spatial Subspace Rotation
Wenjin Wang, Sander Stuijk, and Gerard de Haan, Eindhoven University of Technology, Philips Research, The Netherlands In this paper, we propose a conceptually novel algorithm, namely “Spatial Subspace Rotation” (2SR), that improves the robustness of remote photoplethysmography. Based on the assumption of... Read more
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Evaluation of Six Registration Methods for the Human Abdomen on Clinically Acquired CT
Zhoubing Xu, Christopher P. Lee, Mattias P. Heinrich, Marc Modat, Daniel Rueckert, Sebastien Ourselin, Richard G. Abramson, and Bennett A. Landman, Vanderbilt University, USA; Universität zu Lübeck, Germany; University College London, UK; Imperial College London, UKThis work evaluates current 3-D image... Read more
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Characterization of electrophysiological propagation by multichannel sensor
L. Alan Bradshaw, Juliana H. Kim, Suseela Somarajan, William O. Richards, and Leo K. Cheng, Vanderbilt University, Lipscomb University, University of South Alabama, USA, Auckland University, New Zealand The magnetogastrogram (MGG) is one example of propagating activity from a bioelectric source that may be... Read more
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Thalamic Visual Prosthesis
Hieu T. Nguyen, Siva M. Tangutooru, Corey M. Rountree, Andrew J. Kantzos, Faris Tarlochan, W. Jong Yoon, and John B. Troy, Northwestern University We consider the proposal that a visual prosthesis which interfaces with the thalamic visual center of the brain... Read more
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Tracking Neural Modulation Depth by Dual Sequential Monte Carlo Estimation on Point Processes for Brain Machine Interfaces
Yiwen Wang, Xiwei She, Yuxi Liao, Hongbao Li, Qiaosheng Zhang, Shaomin Zhang, Xiaoxiang Zheng and Jose Principe. Zhejiang University and University of Florida Classic Brain Machine Interface (BMI) approaches decode neural signals from the brain responsible for achieving specific motor movements,... Read more
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Less invasive and inotrope-reduction approach to automated closed-loop control of hemodynamics in decompensated heart failure
Kazunori Uemura, Toru Kawada, Can Zheng, Masaru Sugimachi, Department of Cardiovascular Dynamics, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Heart failure (HF) is a global pandemic problem, and requires complicated hemodynamic management to rescue the victims. In order to reduce the stress and... Read more
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Novel Methods for Sensing Acoustical Emissions from the Knee for Wearable Joint Health Assessment
Caitlin N. Teague, Sinan Hersek, Hakan Töreyin, Mindy L. Millard-Stafford, Michael L. Jones, Geza F. Kogler, Michael N. Sawka, and Omer T. Inan, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA The research reported in this paper was highlighted in several major news pieces including Scientific American and BBC Radio. We... Read more
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Methods for 2D and 3D Endobronchial Ultrasound Image Segmentation
Xiaonan Zang, Rebecca Bascom, Christopher Gilbert, Jennifer Toth, and William E. Higgins, The Pennsylvania State University, USA Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is now commonly used for cancer-staging bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, EBUS is challenging to use, and interpreting EBUS video sequences is difficult. Other ultrasound imaging... Read more
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QRS Detection Algorithm for Telehealth Electrocardiogram Recordings
Heba Khamis, Robert Weiss, Yang Xie, Chan-Wei Chang, Nigel H. Lovell, and Stephen J. Redmond, UNSW Australia QRS detection algorithms are needed to analyze electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings generated in telehealth environments due to the increased prevalence of artifact and the large... Read more
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Towards a Portable Cancer Diagnostic Tool Using a Disposable MEMS-based Biochip
Hardik J. Pandya, Kihan Park, Wenjin Chen, Lauri A. Goodell, David J. Foran, and Jaydev P. Desai, Brigham and Women’s Hospital – Harvard Medical School, University of Maryland, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers USA. Breast cancer... Read more
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Biomimetic Accommodating Intraocular Lens Using a Valved Deformable Liquid Balloon
Charles M. T. DeBoer, Jonathan K. Lee, Brooks P. Wheelan, Craig Cable, Wendian Shi, Yu-Chong Tai, Mark S. Humayun, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, 1Co, Inc., California Institute of Technology, USA Presbyopia is a common, age-related condition that prevents... Read more
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Methods for Improving the Curvature of Steerable Needles in Biological Tissue
Percutaneous interventions involving the insertion of needles to anatomic targets within the body are applied in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Robotic needle steering, a technique for inserting flexible needles along curved paths through tissue, has the potential... Read more
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Epileptic Seizure Prediction Based on Multivariate Statistical Process Control of Heart Rate Variability Features
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that causes seizures with various symptoms such as convulsion and loss of consciousness. Approximately 30% of epileptic patients do not achieve seizure control even though they use the best available medications. If patients with... Read more
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Patient-Specific Oscillometric Blood Pressure Measurement
Oscillometric devices are widely used for automatic cuff blood pressure (BP) measurement.  These devices act as both an actuator to alter the transmural pressure of the brachial artery via cuff inflation/deflation and a sensor to measure the pressure inside the... Read more
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Simulation-Based Design for Wearable Robotic Systems: An Optimization Framework for Enhancing a Standing Long Jump
Wearable robotic devices offer great potential to improve human performance for various movement tasks, but the success of these devices has been limited by our insufficient understanding of the complex interactions between the human and assistive device. With computer simulation... Read more
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Toward Balance Recovery with Leg Prostheses using Neuromuscular Model Control
Lower limb amputees suffer from decreased proprioception, balance, and a limited ability to respond to unexpected disturbances during locomotion. These deficiencies increase the risk of falling, leading to injuries and an aversion to physical activity. Robotic prostheses that use motors... Read more
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A Simple Model to Estimate Plantarflexor Muscle-Tendon Mechanics and Energetics During Walking with Elastic Ankle Exoskeletons
Gregory S. Sawicki and Nabil S. Khan, North Carolina State University and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill A recent experiment demonstrated that when humans wear unpowered elastic ankle exoskeletons with intermediate spring stiffness they can reduce their metabolic energy cost... Read more
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Neural Data-Driven Musculoskeletal Modeling for Personalized Neurorehabilitation Technologies
The development of personalized neurorehabilitation and augmentation technologies requires the profound understanding of the neuro-mechanical processes underlying an individual’s motor function, impairment, and recovery. A major challenge is the difficulty of accessing the in vivo neural activity underlying human movement... Read more
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Evaluation of linear regression simultaneous myoelectric control using intramuscular EMG
Myoelectric prostheses use surface electromyography (EMG) signals to control motorized artificial limb movement and are clinically available to patients with upper extremity amputation. Recent developments in advanced prosthetic arm systems offer the mechanical means to provide life-like artificial limb control.... Read more
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User-Independent Recognition of Sports Activities From a Single Wrist-Worn Accelerometer: A Template-Matching-Based Approach
A sedentary lifestyle is a major risk factor for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis. Many studies reported that physical activity can prevent such pathologies. Thus, measuring physical activity has become increasingly important to conduct research... Read more
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Improved Low-Rank Filtering of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging Data Corrupted by Noise and B0 Field Inhomogeneity
Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is a unique tool for molecular imaging without exogenous contrast agents. For example, MRSI allows for mapping many brain metabolites, such as N-acetylaspartate, Choline, and Creatine, which provide useful information about neuronal viability, cellular membrane... Read more
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Steerable Catheters in Cardiology: Classifying Steerability and Assessing Future Challenges
A large variety of commercially available catheters exist, being adopted in different treatments in interventional cardiology. However, a number of complications arises in positioning and steering the catheters due to the complex and dynamic cardiac environment. As a result, both... Read more
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Special Issue – BRAIN
Welcome to the BRAIN Special Issue! It consists of a group of 22 articles addressing the grand challenges in BRAIN: Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies. These articles reflect a rich spectrum of BRAIN research on neurotechnologies for recording, imaging,... Read more
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Navigated breast tumor excision using electromagnetically tracked ultrasound and surgical instruments
Tamas Ungi, Gabrielle Gauvin, Andras Lasso, Caitlin T. Yeo, Padina Pezeshki, Thomas Vaughan, Kaci Carter, John Rudan, C. Jay Engel, and Gabor Fichtinger, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, Volume 63, Issue 3, Page: 600-606 Lumpectomy, breast conserving tumor excision, is the standard... Read more
Featured Articles
Novel Optical Position Sensing for Miniaturized Applications and Validation in a Total Artificial Heart
Benedikt A. Pelletier, Yvonne M. Blaszczyk, Patrick Carstens, Felix Lamping, Gonzalo Alvarez, Marco Laumen, Thomas Finocchiaro, Ulrich Steinseifer, RWTH Aachen University, Germany, Volume: 63, Issue: 3, Pages: 478 – 484 We demonstrate the development and testing of various Position Sensing Systems (PSS’s) for miniaturized... Read more
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Investigation of the capture of magnetic particles from high-viscosity fluids using permanent magnets
Alexandra Garraud, Camilo Velez, Yash Shah, Nicolas Garraud, Bettina Kozissnik, Elena G. Yarmola, Kyle D. Allen, Jon Dobson, and David P. Arnold, University of Florida, USA There is great interest for using magnets to trap micro- and nano-scale magnetic particles from... Read more
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Dynamic 3D MR Visualization and Detection of Upper Airway Obstruction during Sleep using Region Growing Segmentation
Ahsan Javed, Yoon-Chul Kim, Michael C.K. Khoo, Sally L. Davidson Ward, and Krishna S. Nayak, University of Southern California, USA, Volume 63, Issue 2, Pages:431-437 Obstructive sleep apnea is a common breathing disorder in which airflow is blocked during sleep due to collapse... Read more
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An Open-Source Toolbox for Surrogate Modeling of Joint Contact Mechanics
Ilan Eskinazi and Benjamin J. Fregly, University of Florida, USA, Volume 63, Issue 2, Page: 269-277 Incorporation of elastic joint contact models into simulations of human movement could facilitate studying the interactions between muscles, ligaments, and bones. Unfortunately, elastic joint contact models... Read more
Featured Articles, Special Issue: BRAIN
EEG Source Imaging Enhances the Decoding of Complex Right Hand Motor Imagery Tasks
Bradley J. Edelman, Bryan Baxter, Bin He, University of Minnesota, USA Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on sensorimotor rhythms (SMRs) have achieved successful control of real and virtual devices in up to three dimensions. SMR BCI control signals are founded on the user’s... Read more
Featured Articles, Special Issue: BRAIN
Learning Recurrent Waveforms within EEGs
Austin J. Brockmeier,  Jose C. Principe, University of Liverpool, UK, University of Florida, USA When experts analyze EEGs they look for landmarks in the traces corresponding to established waveform patterns, such as phasic events of particular frequency or morphology. Lengthy records motivate automated analysis... Read more
Featured Articles, Special Issue: BRAIN
A Wireless Fully-Passive Neural Recording Device for Unobtrusive Neuropotential Monitoring
Asimina Kiourti, Cedric W.L. Lee, Junseok Chae, and John L. Volakis, The Ohio State University, Arizona State University, USA Brain implant technology has a strong potential to improve the individual’s well-being. However, current brain implants lack the safety and reliability required for unobtrusive,... Read more
Featured Articles, Special Issue: BRAIN
Close-Packed Silicon Microelectrodes for Scalable Spatially Oversampled Neural Recording
Jorg Scholvin, Justin P. Kinney, Jacob G. Bernstein, Caroline Moore-Kochlacs, Nancy Kopell, Clifton G. Fonstad, Edward S. Boyden, Massachusetts Institute of Technology & Boston University, USA Neural recording electrodes are important for understanding neural codes and brain dynamics. The need for close-packed neural... Read more
Featured Articles, Special Issue: BRAIN
Current Density Imaging during Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation using DT-MRI and MREIT: Algorithm Development and Numerical Simulation
Oh In Kwon, Saurav Z. K. Sajib, Igor Sersa, Tong In Oh, Woo Chul Jeong, Hyung Joong Kim, and Eung Je Woo We developed an MR-based current density imaging technique to monitor the current flow inside the brain during tDCS (transcranial... Read more
Featured Articles, Special Issue: BRAIN
Separable Common Spatio-Spectral Patterns for Motor Imagery BCI Systems
Amirhossein S. Aghaei, Mohammad Shahin Mahanta, Konstantinos N. Plataniotis, University of Toronto Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems aim to provide a non-muscular channel for the brain to control external devices using electrical activities of the brain. These BCIs can be used in various... Read more
Featured Articles, Special Issue: BRAIN
Analysis of Oscillatory Neural Activity in Series Network Models of Parkinson’s Disease During Deep Brain Stimulation
Clare M. Davidson, Annraoi M. de Paor, Hayriye Cagnan and Madeleine M. Lowery,  University College Dublin, Ireland Parkinson’s disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder which primarily affects the motor system in humans. Recordings from the basal ganglia area of the brain reveal... Read more
Featured Articles, Special Issue: BRAIN
Self-adhesive and Capacitive Carbon Nanotube-based Electrode to Record Electroencephalograph Signals from the Hairy Scalp
Seung Min Lee, Jeong Hun Kim, Cheolsoo Park, Ji-Young Hwang, Joung Sook Hong, Kwang Ho Lee, Sang Hoon Lee, Gwangwoon University, Soongsil University, Kangwon National University, Korea University, Korea We fabricated a carbon nanotube (CNT)/adhesive polydimethylsiloxane (aPDMS) composite-based dry electroencephalograph (EEG)... Read more
Featured Articles, Special Issue: BRAIN
Decoding Brain States Based on Magnetoencephalography from Pre-specified Cortical Regions
Jinyin Zhang, Xin Li, Stephen T. Foldes, Wei Wang, Jennifer L. Collinger, Douglas J. Weber, Anto Bagić, Carnegie Mellon University, & University of Pittsburgh, USA Magnetoencephalography (MEG) decoding is a critical tool for many neuroscience studies and neuroengineering applications, such as... Read more
Featured Articles, Special Issue: BRAIN
A Novel Lead Design for Modulation and Sensing of Deep Brain Structures
Allison T. Connolly,Rio J. Vetter, Jamille F. Hetke, Benjamin A. Teplitzky, Daryl R. Kipke, David S. Pellinen, David J. Anderson, Kenneth B. Baker, Jerrold L. Vitek, and Matthew D. Johnson, University of Minnesota, NeuroNexus, USA. This work aims to develop and characterize... Read more
Featured Articles
A Review of Emerging Technologies for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus
K. Zarkogianni, E. Litsa, K. Mitsis, P. Wu, C. D. Kaddi, C. Cheng, M. D. Wang, and K. S. Nikita, National Technical University of Athens, Greece, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, USA The high prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) along with... Read more
Featured Articles
From Wearable Sensors to Smart Implants – Toward Pervasive and Personalized Healthcare
Javier Andreu-Perez, Daniel R. Leff, Henry Man Ip, Guang-zhong Yang,  Imperial College London Chronic diseases, senescence-related dependence, and sedentary lifestyles have become increasingly common, leading to increased healthcare costs. To overcome these challenges, healthcare delivery requires novel technological advances focusing on prevention, early detection,... Read more
Featured Articles
Behavioral Informatics and Computational Modeling in Support of Proactive Health Management and Care
Misha Pavel, Holly B. Jimison, Ilkka Korhonen, Christine M. Gordon, and Niilo Saranummi, Northeastern University, USA Behaviors are killing us – poor health-related behaviors are emerging to be among the key reasons for unnecessary reduction in quality of life and health outcomes.... Read more
Featured Articles
METEOR: An Enterprise Health Informatics Environment to Support Evidence-Based Medicine
Mamta Puppala, Tiancheng He, Shenyi Chen, Richard Ogunti, Xiaohui Yu, Fuhai Li, Robert Jackson, Stephen T.C. Wong, Houston Methodist Hospital Research Institute, USA Better management and analytics of health data would lead to unprecedented opportunities in improving patient care delivery, operational efficiencies,... Read more
Featured Articles
A μm-Scale Computational Model of Magnetic Neural Stimulation in Multifascicular Peripheral Nerves
Anil Kumar RamRakhyani, Zachary B. Kagan, David J. Warren, Richard A. Normann, Gianluca Lazzi, University of Utah, USA There has been recurring interest in using magnetic neural stimulation for implantable localized stimulation. Accurate prediction of stimulator performance in animal or human subjects... Read more
Featured Articles
An Ear-Worn Vital Signs Monitor
  Cardiovascular disease (CVD) affects over one third of the U.S. population and is the current leading cause of death. Many key cardiovascular parameters such as the heart rate, stroke volume, pre-ejection period (PEP), and pulse transit time (PTT) have valuable... Read more
Featured Articles
Depth Sensing for Improved Control of Lower Limb Prostheses
  We propose the addition of environmental sensing, in the form of depth sensing, to the control of powered, lower-limb prostheses. Currently, the prediction of which locomotion mode-based controller to use has been performed using EMG from the residual limb and... Read more
Featured Articles
New Methods to Monitor Stair Ascents Using a Wearable Pendant Device Reveal How Behavior, Fear, and Frailty Influence Falls in Octogenarians
We investigated whether a freely worn pendant inertial sensor, containing a triaxial accelerometer and a barometer, could be used to accurately identify stair ascent by 52 older adults in free living. Stair ascent could be identified using a decision tree,... Read more
Featured Articles
Heart Rate Detection during Sleep Using the Flexible RF Resonator and Injection-Locked PLL Sensor
A novel non-intrusive technology for wrist pulse detection system has been developed and proposed for sleep monitoring using three types of radio frequency (RF) sensors. The three types of RF sensors for heart rate measurement on wrist, were the flexible... Read more
Featured Articles
Omni-Directional Ultrasonic Powering for Millimeter-Scale Implantable Devices
Ultrasonic wireless powering offers a superior energy-conversion efficiency at millimeter scale dimensions and deeper penetration depth compared to the traditional inductive powering method. This makes ultrasound an attractive candidate for powering deep-seated implantable medical devices especially when the size restriction... Read more
Featured Articles
Real-time Neuroimaging and Cognitive Monitoring Using Wearable Dry EEG
In recent years, there have been significant advances in wearable, mobile, dry-electrode electroencephalography (EEG) systems. These are yielding exciting new possibilities for scientific research, clinical diagnostics and therapeutics, and brain-computer interfaces (BCI) outside the clinic or laboratory. However, these systems... Read more
Featured Articles
Closed-Loop Optogenetic Brain Interface
Brain-machine interface (BMI) techniques are developed to implement direct data communication links between the brain and artificial computers. The main objective in using BMI systems is to bypass or compensate possible damages in data processing pathways in the brain or... Read more
Featured Articles
Flexible Sixteen Antenna Array for Microwave Breast Cancer Detection
H. Bahramiabarghouei, E. Porter, A. Santorelli, B. Gosselin, M. Popović, and L. A. Rusch, Laval University & McGill University, Volume 62, Issue 10, Page 2516-2525 Radar based microwave imaging (MWI) has been widely studied for breast cancer detection. The dielectric property differences... Read more
Featured Articles
Biomechanical Effects of Stiffness in Parallel with the Knee Joint during Walking
  Lower-extremity exoskeletons have been actively investigated in the past few decades intending to augment the locomotion performance of able-bodied users in terms of metabolic cost, load carrying capacity, fatigue, and muscle force generation. While development efforts have been extensive, lower-limb... Read more
Featured Articles
Fully Automated Renal Tissue Volumetry in MR Volume Data Using Prior Shape Based Segmentation in Subject-Specific Probability Maps
In this work a fully automated framework for renal parenchyma segmentation in native MR volume data is presented. The framework is extended by automated renal cortex and medulla segmentation to allow differentiated volumetric analysis of renal tissue types for an... Read more
Featured Articles
A Dual-Mode Large-Arrayed CMOS ISFET Sensor for Accurate and High-Throughput pH Sensing in Biomedical Diagnosis
The existing ion-sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) based DNA sequencing detects hydrogen ions (H+) released during polymerization of DNA strands that are attached on microbeads. However, these microbeads are scattered into microwell array above the ISFET sensor with unknown distribution.... Read more
Featured Articles
Patient Registration Using Intraoperative Stereovision in Image-guided Open Spinal Surgery
Effective image-guidance relies on an accurate and efficient patient registration. To-date, image-guidance has limited applications in spinal surgery, in large part, due to challenges in patient registration. For example, the mobility of spinal vertebrae makes conventional fiducial registration infeasible. While... Read more
Featured Articles
Electric Field Model of Transcranial Electric Stimulation in Nonhuman Primates: Correspondence to Individual Motor Threshold
This paper describes a pipeline for realistic head models of nonhuman primates for simulations of noninvasive brain stimulation, and uses these models together with empirical threshold measurements to demonstrate that the models capture individual anatomical variability. Based on structural magnetic... Read more
Featured Articles
Matching Pursuit Based Time-Variant Bispectral Analysis and its Application to Biomedical Signals
Advanced time-variant and non-linear approaches can be beneficially used for analysis of biomedical signals and are able to gain new insights into specific signal characteristics like short term patterns in the heart rate variability (HRV) of epileptic children or in... Read more
Featured Articles
Towards Ubiquitous Blood Pressure Monitoring via Pulse Transit Time: Theory and Practice
Ubiquitous blood pressure monitoring is on the horizon for two reasons. One reason is a profound need. Hypertension is a major cardiovascular risk factor that is treatable, yet high blood pressure detection and control rates are abysmally low, especially in... Read more
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The Palm-Sized Cryoprobe System Based on Refrigerant Expansion and Boiling and its Application to an Animal Model of Epilepsy
The purpose of this study is to propose the palm-sized cryoprobe system based on a new concept and to suggest that the freezing technique could be used for treatment of epilepsy. We propose herein a cryoprobe system based on the... Read more
Featured Articles
Using Kalman Filtering to Predict Time-Varying Parameters in a Model Predicting Baroreflex Regulation During Head-Up Tilt
The cardiovascular control system is constantly utilized to distribute and maintain required amounts of oxygenated blood to vitals areas in order to maintain homeostasis. However, in a subset of the population with orthostatic intolerance, this system can fail. The reasons... Read more
Featured Articles
Nonlinear Dynamic Modelling of Platelet Aggregation via Microfluidic Devices
Miguel E. Combariza, Xinghuo Yu, Warwick S. Nesbitt, Arnan Mitchell, and Francisco J. Tovar-Lopez, RMIT University, Australia, Volume 62, Issue 7, Page: 1718-1727 The development of blood clots at sites of atherosclerotic plaque rupture -arterial thrombosis- remains a major cause of patient death... Read more
Featured Articles
A Novel Region Reconstruction Method for Fluorescence Molecular Tomography
Yu An, Jie Liu, Guanglei Zhang, Jinzuo Ye, Yang Du, Yamin Mao, Chongwei Chi and Jie Tian, Beijing Jiaotong University; Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Volume:62, Issue:7, Page(s): 1818-1826 Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (FMT) enables three-dimensional (3D) visualization as well as... Read more
Featured Articles
A Switched-Mode Breast Coil for 7 Tesla MRI Using Forced-Current Excitation
In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the available signal is tied to the magnetic field strength. High field MRI has higher intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which can be traded for higher resolution or reduced scan time. However, the higher magnetic field... Read more
Featured Articles
On the Opportunities and Challenges in Microwave Medical Sensing and Imaging
Widely used medical imaging systems in clinics currently rely on X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computed tomography, and positron emission tomography. The aforementioned technologies provide clinical data with a variety of resolution, implementation cost, and use complexity, where some of... Read more
Featured Articles
Robustness assessment of 1D Electron Paramagnetic Resonance for improved magnetic nanoparticle reconstructions
Annelies Coene, Guillaume Crevecoeur and Luc Dupré, Ghent University, Belgium Volume: 62, Issue: 6, Page(s): 1635 – 1643 Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are an important asset in many biomedical applications. Their small sizes allow them to reach virtually every part in the body,... Read more
Featured Articles
Sequential Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering of White Matter Fiber Pathways
Ali Demir and H. Ertan Cetingul, Bogazici University, Turkey & Siemens Corporate Technology, USA, Volume: 62, Issue: 6, Page(s): 1478 – 1489 Quantitative characterization of the white matter circuitry in the human brain is paramount for mapping the structural brain connectivity.... Read more
Featured Articles
Training for Planning Tumour Resection: Augmented Reality and Human Factors
Kamyar Abhari, John S.H. Baxter, Elvis C.S. Chen, Ali R. Khan, Terry M. Peters, Sandrine de Ribaupierre, and Roy Eagleson, Robarts Research Institute, Imaging Laboratory, London, ON, Canada, Volume: 62, Issue: 6, Page(s): 1466 – 1477 Our paper describes the design and... Read more
Featured Articles
Pharmacokinetic Tumor Heterogeneity as a Prognostic Biomarker for Classifying Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk
Majid Mahrooghy, Ahmed B. Ashraf, Dania Daye, Elizabeth S. McDonald, Mark Rosen, Carolyn Mies, Michael Feldman, and Despina Kontos, University of Pennsylvania Volume: 62 , Issue: 6 Page(s): 1585 – 1594 Breast tumors have been shown to be highly heterogeneous lesions. Intra-tumor... Read more
Featured Articles
An Integrated Widefield Imaging and Spectroscopy System for Contrast-Enhanced, Image-guided Resection of Tumors
Volume 62, Issue 5, Page: 1416-1424 Surgery is the most widely used treatment for solid tumors worldwide. However, recurrence of the tumor following surgery continues to prevent many patients from achieving complete remission. There are several factors that contribute to tumor... Read more
Featured Articles
Multi-scale 3D+t Intracranial Aneurysmal Flow Vortex Detection
Giacomo Feliciani, Wouter V. Potters, Pim van Ooij, Joppe J. Schneiders, Aart J. Nederveen, Ed vanBavel, Charles B. Majoie, and Henk A. Marquering, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, & University of Bologna, Italy ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract Selection of intracranial... Read more
Featured Articles
Sparse Dissimilarity-constrained Coding for Glaucoma Screening
Jun Cheng, Fengshou Yin, Damon Wing Kee Wong, Dacheng Tao, and Jiang Liu, Institute for Infocomm Research, Agency of Science, Technology and Research, Singapore & University of Technology, Sydney, Volume 62, Issue 5, Page: 1395-1403 Glaucoma is an irreversible chronic eye disease that... Read more
Featured Articles
A Novel System Identification Technique for Improved Wearable Hemodynamics Assessment
Andrew D. Wiens and Omer T. Inan,  Georgia Institute of Technology Volume 62, Issue 5, Page: 1345-1354 Ballistocardiography (BCG) – the measurement of cardiac function from small movements of the body that occur with the beating heart – has received increasing attention in... Read more
Featured Articles
An Automated Statistical Shape Model Developmental Pipeline: Application to the Human Scapula and Humerus
Tinashe Mutsvangwa, Valérie Burdin, Cédric Schwartz, and Christian Roux, University of Cape Town, Télécom Bretagne, University of Liège and Ecole des mines de Saint-Etienne, France, Volume 62, Issue 4, Page: 1098-1107 Statistical shape models (SSMs) have become an indispensable tool for medical image... Read more
Featured Articles
Holistic Atlases of Functional Networks and Interactions Reveal Reciprocal Organizational Architecture of Cortical Function
Jinglei Lv, Xi Jiang, Xiang Li, Dajiang Zhu, Shu Zhang, Shijie Zhao, Hanbo Chen, Tuo Zhang, Xintao Hu, Junwei Han, Jieping Ye, Lei Guo, Tianming Liu, Northwestern Polytechnical University & The University of Georgia, Volume 62, Issue 4, Page:1120 –... Read more
Featured Articles
Patient Specific Cortical Electrodes for Sulcal and Gyral Implantation
Shayne Morris, Masayuki Hirata, Hisato Sugata, Tetsu Goto, Kojiro Matsushita,  Takufumi Yanagisawa, Youichi Saitoh, Haruhiko Kishima, and Toshiki Yoshimine, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka, Japan Volume 62, Issue 4, Page:1034-1041 Open Access Non-invasive localization of certain brain functions may be mapped on a... Read more
Featured Articles
A Novel Method to Decrease Electric Field and SAR using an External High Dielectric Sleeve at 3T Head MRI: Numerical and Experimental Results
Bu S. Park, Sunder S. Rajan, Joshua W. Guag, and Leonardo M. Angelone, Division of Physics (DP)/OSEL/CDRH, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), USA, Volume 62, Issue 4, Page: 1063-1069 Materials with high dielectric constant (HDC) have been used in high field MRI to... Read more
Featured Articles
Using a Non-Invasive Decoding Method to Classify Rhythmic Movement Imaginations of the Arm in Two Planes
Patrick Ofner and Gernot R. Müller-Putz, Graz University of Technology, Austria Volume 62, Issue 3, Page: 972-981 Persons with spinal-cord injury (SCI) have lost a certain amount of movement functions, and a brain-computer interface (BCI) can help to overcome these movement deficits. Ideally, such... Read more
Featured Articles
Improving the stability of cardiac mechanical simulations
Sander Land, Steven Niederer, Pablo Lamata, Nicolas Smith, King’s College London Volume 62, Issue 3, Page: 939-947 In the eld of cardiac modelling, the mechanical action of the heart is often simulated using nite element methods. These simulations are becoming increasingly challenging as the... Read more
Featured Articles
A Miniaturized, Eye-conformable, and Long-term Reliable Retinal Prosthesis using Monolithic Fabrication of Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP)
Joonsoo Jeong, So Hyun Bae, Kyou Sik Min, Jong-Mo Seo, Hum Chung, and Sung June Kim, Seoul National University, Korea Volume 62, Issue 3, Page:982-989 A retinal prosthesis is a biomedical implant for restoring partial vision in blind patients suffering from retinal... Read more
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Photoplethysmography-based algorithm for detection of cardiogenic output during cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Ralph Wijshoff, Antoine van Asten, Wouter Peeters, Rick Bezemer, Gerrit Jan Noordergraaf, Massimo Mischi, and Ronald Aarts, Eindhoven University of Technology, Philips Research, & St. Elisabeth Hospital, The Netherlands, Volume 62, Issue 3, Page:909-921 Detecting return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) typically involves... Read more