Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
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Should Hands Be Restricted When Measuring Able-Bodied Participants to Evaluate Machine Learning Controlled Prosthetic Hands?
When evaluating methods for machine-learning controlled prosthetic hands, able-bodied participants are often recruited, for practical reasons, instead of participants with upper limb absence (ULA). However, able-bodied participants have been shown to often perform myoelectric control tasks better than participants with ULA... Read more
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Modeling of Human Operator Behavior for Brain-Actuated Mobile Robots Steering
Human operator control of brain-actuated robot steering based on electroencephalograph (EEG)-signals is a complex behavior consisting of surroundings perceiving, decision making, and commands issuing and differs among individual operators... Read more
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A Backpack Minimizing the Vertical Acceleration of the Load Improves the Economy of Human Walking
Loaded walking with a rucksack results in both gravitational and inertial forces of the load that must be borne by human carriers. The inertial force may be the source of metabolic burden and musculoskeletal injuries. This paper presents a lightweight backpack with a disturbance observer-based acceleration control to minimize the inertial force... Read more
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Test-Retest Reliability of Kinematic Assessments for Upper Limb Robotic Rehabilitation
Robot-measured kinematic variables are increasingly used in neurorehabilitation to characterize motor recovery following stroke. However, few studies have evaluated the reliability of these kinematic variables. This study aimed at evaluating the test-retest reliability of typically-used robot-measured kinematic variables in healthy subjects (HS) and patients with stroke (SP)... Read more
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Actuation selection for assistive exoskeletons: matching capabilities to task requirements
Selecting actuators for assistive exoskeletons involves decisions in which designers usually face contrasting requirements. While certain choices may depend on the application context or design philosophy, it is generally desirable to avoid oversizing actuators in order to obtain more lightweight and transparent systems, ultimately promoting the adoption of a given device... Read more
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A Framework of a Lower Limb Musculoskeletal Model With Implemented Natural Proprioceptive Feedback and Its Progressive Evaluation
Proprioceptive senses play an important role in human body reflex and movement, so far implementing physiological mathematical models of proprioceptors in the musculoskeletal model and investigating their effects have not been sufficiently investigated... Read more
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Plane Dependent Subject-Specific Neuromuscular Training for Knee Rehabilitation
Knee injuries at risk of post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis (PTOA) and knee osteoarthritis (OA) are closely associated with knee transverse plane and/or frontal plane instability and excessive loading. However, most existing training and rehabilitation devices involve mainly movements in the sagittal plane... Read more
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Pneumatic AFO Powered by a Miniature Custom Compressor for Drop Foot Correction
For active AFO applications, pneumatic remote transmission has advantages in minimizing the mass and complexity of the system due to the flexibility in placing pneumatic components and providing high back-drivability via simple valve control... Read more
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The Uncontrolled Manifold Theory Could Explain Part of the Inter-Trial Variability of Knee Contact Force During Level Walking
Accurate predictions of joint contact forces through computer simulation of musculoskeletal dynamics can provide insight, in a non-invasive manner, into the joint loads of patients with osteoarthritis and healthy controls... Read more
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Performance Evaluation of Lower Limb Exoskeletons: A Systematic Review
Benchmarks have long been used to verify and compare the readiness level of different technologies in many application domains. In the field of wearable robots, the lack of a recognized benchmarking methodology is one important impediment that may hamper the efficient translation of research prototypes into actual products... Read more
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Dynamic reorganization of functional connectivity unmasks fatigue related performance declines in simulated driving
Although driving fatigue has long been recognized as one of the leading causes of fatal accidents worldwide, the underlying neural mechanisms remain largely unknown that impedes the developments of automatic detection techniques... Read more
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Learning, Generalization, and Scalability of Abstract Myoelectric Control
Motor learning-based methods offer an alternative paradigm to machine learning-based methods for controlling upper-limb prosthetics. Within this paradigm, the patterns of muscular activity used for control can differ from those which control biological limbs... Read more
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Evaluating Auditory Neural Activities and Information Transfer Using Phase and Spike Train Correlation Algorithms
The coherence of neural activities among different areas in the brain has received great attention because it is valuable in understanding the functional mechanism of brain structures. While many methodologies, such as time-frequency and entropy analysis, have been applied to evaluate relations between neural signals, these techniques haven’t been effective in assessing neural communication in order to reach conclusions... Read more
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Adaptive Spatial Filtering of High-Density EMG for Reducing the Influence of Noise and Artefacts in Myoelectric Control
Electromyography (EMG) is a source of neural information for controlling neuroprosthetic devices. To enhance the information content of conventional bipolar EMG, high-density EMG systems include tens to hundreds of closely spaced electrodes that non-invasively record the electrical activity of muscles with high spatial resolution... Read more
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Classification of Electromyographic Hand Gesture Signals Using Modified Fuzzy C-Means Clustering and Two-Step Machine Learning Approach
Understanding and classifying electromyogram (EMG) signals is of significance for dexterous prosthetic hand control, sign languages, grasp recognition, human-machine interaction, etc.. The existing research of EMG-based hand gesture classification faces the challenges of unsatisfied classification accuracy, insufficient generalization ability, lack... Read more
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Hierarchical Bayesian Optimization of Spatiotemporal Neurostimulations for Targeted Motor Outputs
The development of neurostimulation techniques to evoke motor patterns is an active area of research. It serves as a crucial experimental tool to probe computation in neural circuits, and has applications in neuroprostheses used to aid recovery of motor function... Read more
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Wearable Sensors Quantify Mobility in People With Lower Limb Amputation During Daily Life
It is necessary to effectively assess functional mobility for appropriate prosthetic prescription and post-amputation rehabilitation. As part of this process, patients’ ability for variable cadence and community ambulation are assessed in-clinic, often through visual assessments and without objective standards. The... Read more
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Social Human-Robot Interaction for Gait Rehabilitation
Robot-assisted therapy for gait rehabilitation of patients with neurological disorders usually combines a body weight support system with a treadmill system. Lokomat is one of the most used devices for gait rehabilitation. This device allows therapists to focus on the... Read more
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Manifold Embedded Knowledge Transfer for Brain-Computer Interfaces
Transfer learning makes use of data or knowledge in one problem to help solve a different, yet related, problem. It is particularly useful in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), for coping with variations among different subjects and/or tasks. This paper considers offline... Read more
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Estimation of muscle co-activations in wrist rehabilitation after stroke is sensitive to motor unit distribution and action potential shapes
We evaluated different muscle excitation estimation techniques, and their sensitivity to Motor Unit (MU) distribution in muscle tissue. For this purpose, the Convolution Kernel Compensation (CKC) method was used to identify the MU spike trains from High-Density ElectroMyoGrams (HDEMG). Afterwards,... Read more
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Neuromuscular Controller Embedded in a Powered Ankle Exoskeleton: Effects on Gait, Clinical Features and Subjective Perspective of Incomplete Spinal Cord Injured Subjects
Powered exoskeletons are among the emerging technologies claiming to assist functional ambulation. The potential to adapt robotic assistance based on specific motor abilities of incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) subjects, is crucial to optimize Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). Achilles, an autonomous... Read more
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A Novel Soft Robotic Supernumerary Hand for Severely Affected Stroke Patients
Upper limb functions are severely affected in 23% of the chronic stroke patients, compromising their life quality. To re-enable hand use, providing a degree of functionality and motivating against learned non-use, we propose a robotic supernumerary limb, the SoftHand X... Read more
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Estimating Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Motor Score From Functional-Connectivity Measures
Fugl-Meyer assessment is an accepted method of evaluating motor function for people with stroke. A challenge associated with this assessment is the availability of trained examiners to carry out the evaluation. Neurophysiological biomarkers show promise in addressing the above impediment.... Read more
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In-Vivo Study of Passive Musculotendon Mechanics in Chronic Hemispheric Stroke Survivors
We characterized the passive mechanical properties of the affected and contralateral musculotendon units in 9 chronic stroke survivors as well as in 6 neurologically-intact controls. Using a position-controlled motor, we precisely indented the distal tendon of the biceps brachii to... Read more
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Simultaneous Prediction of Wrist/Hand Motion via Wearable Ultrasound Sensing
The ability to predict wrist and hand motions simultaneously is essential for natural controls of hand protheses. In this paper, we propose a novel method that includes subclass discriminant analysis (SDA) and principal component analysis for the simultaneous prediction of... Read more
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Associations Among Emotional State, Sleep Quality, and Resting-State EEG Spectra: A Longitudinal Study in Graduate Students
University students are routinely influenced by a variety of natural stressors and experience irregular sleep-wake cycles caused by the necessity to trade sleep for studying while dealing with academic assignments. Often these factors result in long-term issues with daytime sleepiness,... Read more
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Magnetic Measurement of Electrically Evoked Muscle Responses With Optically Pumped Magnetometers
Electroneurography has been an essential method for assessing peripheral nerve disorders for decades. During this procedure, a nerve is briefly electrically excited, and nerve conduction properties are identified by indirect means from the behavior of the innervated muscle. The magnetic... Read more
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Estimating Upper-Limb Impairment Level in Stroke Survivors Using Wearable Inertial Sensors and a Minimally-Burdensome Motor Task
Upper-limb paresis is the most common motor impairment post stroke. Current solutions to automate the assessment of upper-limb impairment impose a number of critical burdens on patients and their caregivers that preclude frequent assessment. In this work, we propose an... Read more
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Inertial Sensor-Based Centripetal Acceleration as a Correlate for Lateral Margin of Stability During Walking and Turning
There is growing interest in using inertial sensors to continuously monitor gait during free-living mobility. Inertial sensors can provide many gait measures, but they struggle to capture the spatial stability of the center-of-mass due to limitations estimating sensor-to-sensor distance. While... Read more
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Decoding Movement-Related Cortical Potentials Based on Subject-Dependent and Section-Wise Spectral Filtering
An important challenge in developing a movement-related cortical potential (MRCP)-based brain-machine interface (BMI) is an accurate decoding of the user intention for real-world environments. However, the performance remains insufficient for real-time decoding owing to the endogenous signal characteristics compared to... Read more
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Modelling and Design of the Automatic Stance Phase Lock (ASPL) Knee Joint Control Mechanism for Paediatric Users with Transfemoral Amputations
The 2-axes Automatic Stance Phase Lock (ASPL) stance control mechanism has been demonstrated to improve adult amputees’ mobility but has yet to be developed for the paediatric population. The overall objective for this work was to characterize the ASPL control... Read more
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Assessing Neural Compensation with Visuospatial Working Memory Load using Near-Infrared Imaging
Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the progressive deterioration of cognitive abilities particularly working memory while mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents its prodrome. It is generally believed that neural compensation is intact in MCI but absent in Alzheimer’s disease. This study... Read more
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Utilizing high-density electroencephalography and motion capture technology to characterize sensorimotor integration while performing complex actions
Studies of sensorimotor integration often use sensory stimuli that require a simple motor response, such as a reach or a grasp. Recent advances in neural recording techniques, motion capture technologies, and time-synchronization methods enable studying sensorimotor integration using more complex... Read more
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Determining User Intent of Partly Dynamic Shoulder Tasks in Individuals with Chronic Stroke using Pattern Recognition
Stroke remains the leading cause of long-term disability in the US. Although therapy can achieve limited improvement of paretic arm use and performance, weakness and abnormal muscle synergies—which cause unintentional elbow, wrist, and finger flexion during shoulder abduction—contribute significantly to... Read more
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Effect of Amplitude and Number of Repetitions of the Perturbation on System Identification of Human Balance Control During Stance
     To unravel the underlying mechanisms of human balance control, system identification techniques are applied in combination with dedicated perturbations, like support surface translations. However, it remains unclear what the optimal amplitude and number of repetitions of the perturbation signal are.... Read more
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Proof of Concept of an Assistive Robotic Arm Control Using Artificial Stereovision and Eye-Tracking
    Assistive robotic arms have become popular to help users with upper limb disabilities achieve autonomy in their daily tasks, such as drinking and grasping objects in general. Usually, these robotic arms are controlled with an adapted joystick. Joysticks are user-friendly... Read more
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Intraoperative Responses May Predict Chronic Performance of Composite Flat Interface Nerve Electrodes on Human Femoral Nerves
       Peripheral nerve cuff electrodes (NCEs) in motor system neuroprostheses can generate strong muscle contractions and enhance surgical efficiency by accessing multiple muscles from a single proximal location. Predicting chronic performance of high contact density NCEs based on intraoperative observations would... Read more
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Use of Pelvic Corrective Force With Visual Feedback Improves Paretic Leg Muscle Activities and Gait Performance After Stroke
     The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of combined pelvic corrective force and visual feedback during treadmill walking on paretic leg muscle activity and gait characteristics in individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis. Fifteen chronic stroke participants completed visual... Read more
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Phase-Synchronized Assistive Torque Control for the Correction of Kinematic Anomalies in the Gait Cycle
   Gait anomalies give rise to several clinical problems in stroke survivors, which restrict their functional mobility and have a negative impact on their quality of life. Robotics-aided gait training post-stroke has proven capable of improving patients’ functional walking, but so... Read more
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EEG-Based Driver Drowsiness Estimation Using Feature Weighted Episodic Training
   Drowsy driving is pervasive, and also a major cause of traffic accidents. Estimating a driver’s drowsiness level by monitoring the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal and taking preventative actions accordingly may improve driving safety. However, individual differences among different drivers make this... Read more
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Academic Review and Perspectives on Robotic Exoskeletons
        Since the first robotic exoskeleton was developed in 1960, this research field has attracted much interest from both the academic and industrial communities resulting in scientific publications, prototype developments and commercialized products. In this article, to document the progress in... Read more
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A Robust Encoding Scheme for Delivering Artificial Sensory Information via Direct Brain Stimulation
  Innovations for creating somatosensation via direct electrical stimulation of the brain will be required for the next generation of bi-directional cortical neuroprostheses. The current lack of tactile perception and proprioceptive input likely imposes a fundamental limit on speed and accuracy... Read more
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Development of a Virtual Floor Maze Test – Effects of Distal Visual Cues and Correlations With Executive Function in Healthy Adults
     Virtual reality (VR) is a useful tool to assess and improve spatial navigation, a complex skill and relevant marker for progression of dementia. A fully-immersive VR system that allows the user to physically navigate in the space can provide an... Read more
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A Modular Transradial Bypass Socket for Surface Myoelectric Prosthetic Control in Non-Amputees
        Bypass sockets allow researchers to perform tests of prosthetic systems from the prosthetic user’s perspective. We designed a modular upper-limb bypass socket with 3D-printed components that can be easily modified for use with a variety of terminal devices. Our bypass... Read more
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Application of a Novel Force-Field to Manipulate the Relationship Between Pelvis Motion and Step Width in Human Walking
   Motion of the pelvis throughout a step predicts step width during human walking. This behavior is often considered an important component of ensuring bipedal stability, but can be disrupted in populations with neurological injuries. The purpose of this study was... Read more
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Unsupervised Common Spatial Patterns
    The common spatial pattern (CSP) method is a dimensionality reduction technique widely used in brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. In the two-class CSP problem, training data are linearly projected onto directions maximizing or minimizing the variance ratio between the two classes.... Read more
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A Heuristic Approach to Overcome Architectural Barriers Using a Robotic Wheelchair
<em       The Mobility Enhancement roBotic (MEBot) wheelchair was developed to improve the safety and accessibility of wheelchair users when facing architectural barriers. MEBot uses pneumatic actuators attached to its frame and six wheels to provide curb ascending/descending for heights... Read more
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Clustering Neural Patterns in Kernel Reinforcement Learning Assists Fast Brain Control in Brain-Machine Interfaces
     Neuroprosthesis enables the brain control on the external devices purely using neural activity for paralyzed people. Supervised learning decoders recalibrate or re-fit the discrepancy between the desired target and decoder’s output, where the correction may over-dominate the user’s intention. Reinforcement... Read more
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Temporal Modulation of the Response of Sensory Fibers to Paired-Pulse Stimulation
      Multi-channel nerve cuff electrode arrays can provide sensory feedback to prosthesis users. To develop efficacious stimulation protocols, an understanding of the impact that spatio-temporal patterned stimulation can have on the response of sensory fibers is crucial. We used experimental and... Read more
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Combined Ankle/Knee Stretching and Pivoting Stepping Training for Children With Cerebral Palsy
     Although various treatment methods have been investigated to reduce spasticity and intoeing gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP), methods to concurrently reduce an intoeing gait and associated ankle/knee stiffness and spasticity according to a child’s specific needs are lacking.... Read more
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Bio-inspired Balance Control Assistance Can Reduce Metabolic Energy Consumption In Human Walking
The amount of research on developing exoskeletons for human gait assistance has been growing in the recent years. However, the control design of exoskeletons for assisting human walking remains unclear. This paper presents a novel bio-inspired reflex-based control for assisting... Read more
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Compact and Low-Power Neural Spike Compression Using Undercomplete Autoencoders
Implantable microsystems that collect and transmit neural data are becoming very useful entities in the field of neuroscience. Limited by high data rates, on-chip compression is often required to transmit the recorded data without causing power dissipation at levels that... Read more
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Design Optimization in Lower Limb Prostheses: A Review
This paper aims to develop a knowledge base and identify the promising research pathways toward designing lower limb prostheses for optimal biomechanical and clinical outcomes. It is based on the literature search representing the state of the art in the... Read more
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Effects of Vibrotactile Biofeedback Coding Schemes on Gait Symmetry Training of Individuals With Stroke
Variations in biofeedback coding schemes for postural control, in recent research, have shown significant differences in performance outcomes due to variations in coding schemes. However, the application of vibrotactile biofeedback coding schemes to gait symmetry training is not well explored.... Read more
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Subject-Exoskeleton Contact Model Calibration Leads to Accurate Interaction Force Predictions
Knowledge of human–exoskeleton interaction forces is crucial to assess user comfort and effectiveness of the interaction. The subject-exoskeleton collaborative movement and its interaction forces can be predicted in silico using computational modeling techniques. We developed an optimal control framework that... Read more
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From Group-Level Statistics to Single-Subject Prediction: Machine Learning Detection of Concussion in Retired Athletes
         There has been increased effort to understand the neurophysiological effects of concussion aimed to move diagnosis and identification beyond current subjective behavioral assessments that suffer from poor sensitivity. Recent evidence suggests that event-related potentials (ERPs) measured with electroencephalography (EEG) are... Read more
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Bilevel Optimization for Cost Function Determination in Dynamic Simulation of Human Gait
      Predictive simulation based on dynamic optimization using musculoskeletal models is a powerful approach for studying human gait. Predictive musculoskeletal simulation may be used for a variety of applications from designing assistive devices to testing theories of motor control. However, the... Read more
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Validation of Polymer-Based Screen-Printed Textile Electrodes for Surface EMG Detection
      In recent years, the variety of textile electrodes developed for electrophysiological signal detection has increased rapidly. Among the applications that could benefit from this advancement, those based on surface electromyography (sEMG) are particularly relevant in rehabilitation, training, and muscle function... Read more
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Motor Control After Human SCI Through Activation of Muscle Synergies Under Spinal Cord Stimulation
    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has enabled motor recovery in paraplegics with motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the physiological mechanisms underlying this recovery are unknown. This paper analyzes muscle synergies in two motor complete SCI patients under SCS during... Read more
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Real-Time Bladder Pressure Estimation for Closed-Loop Control in a Detrusor Overactivity Model
    Overactive bladder (OAB) patients suffer from a frequent urge to urinate, which can lead to a poor quality of life. Current neurostimulation therapy uses open-loop electrical stimulation to alleviate symptoms. Continuous stimulation facilitates habituation of neural pathways and consumes battery... Read more
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Robot-Assisted Reaching Performance of Chronic Stroke and Healthy Individuals in a Virtual Versus a Physical Environment: A Pilot Study
   The aim of the current study was to examine the role of environment, whether virtual or physical, on robot-assisted reaching movements in chronic stroke and healthy individuals, within a single session. Twenty-three subjects participated in the current study divided into... Read more
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A Mechatronic System for Studying Energy Optimization During Walking
    A general principle of human movement is that our nervous system is able to learn optimal coordination strategies. However, how our nervous system performs this optimization is not well understood. Here we design, build, and test a mechatronic system to... Read more
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Objective and Subjective Speech Quality Assessment of Amplification Devices for Patients With Parkinson’s Disease
    This paper investigated subjective and objective assessment of Parkinsonian speech quality. Speech stimuli were recorded from 11 Parkinsonian and 10 age-matched normal control participants under different amplification and environmental conditions. Quality ratings of the recorded stimuli were obtained from naïve... Read more
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Precise Tubular Braid Structures of Ultrafine Microwires as Neural Probes: Significantly Reduced Chronic Immune Response and Greater Local Neural Survival in Rat Cortex
   Braided multi-electrode probes (BMEPs) for neural interfaces comprise ultrafine microwire bundles interwoven into tubular braids. BMEPs provide highly flexible probes and tethers, and an open lattice structure with up to 24 recording/stimulating channels in precise geometries, currently all within a... Read more
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A Carbon Slurry Separated Interface Nerve Electrode for Electrical Block of Nerve Conduction
      Direct current (DC) nerve block has been shown to provide a complete block of nerve conduction without unwanted neural firing. Previous work shows that high capacitance electrodes can be used to safely deliver a DC block. Another way of delivering... Read more
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An Event-Driven AR-Process Model for EEG-Based BCIs With Rapid Trial Sequences
     Electroencephalography (EEG) is an effective non-invasive measurement method to infer user intent in brain-computer interface (BCI) systems for control and communication, however, these systems often lack sufficient accuracy and speed due to low separability of class-conditional EEG feature distributions. Many... Read more
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Proportional Joint-Moment Control for Instantaneously Adaptive Ankle Exoskeleton Assistance
   Lower-limb exoskeletons used to improve free-living mobility for individuals with neuromuscular impairment must be controlled to prescribe assistance that adapts to the diverse locomotor conditions encountered during daily life, including walking at different speeds and across varied terrain. The goal... Read more
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Modeling Trans-Spinal Direct Current Stimulation in the Presence of Spinal Implants
   Trans-spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS) is a technique considered for the treatment of corticospinal damage or dysfunction. TsDCS aims to induce functional modulation in the corticospinal circuitry via a direct current (DC) generated electric field. To ensure subject safety, subjects... Read more
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Age-Related Changes in Vibro-Tactile EEG Response and Its Implications in BCI Applications: A Comparison Between Older and Younger Populations
    The rapid increase in the number of older adults around the world is accelerating research in applications to support age-related conditions, such as brain–computer interface (BCI) applications for post-stroke neurorehabilitation. The signal processing algorithms for electroencephalogram (EEG) and other physiological... Read more
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Design of a Low Profile, Unpowered Ankle Exoskeleton That Fits Under Clothes: Overcoming Practical Barriers to Widespread Societal Adoption
   Here, we present the design of a novel unpowered ankle exoskeleton that is low profile, lightweight, quiet, and low cost to manufacture, intrinsically adapts to different walking speeds, and does not restrict non-sagittal joint motion; while still providing assistive ankle... Read more
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Enhancing Mobility With Quasi-Passive Variable Stiffness Exoskeletons
  Shoes were invented to provide user comfort using rubber soles, despite marginal improvement in human mobility. Unlike shoes, current lower-limb exoskeletons use fixed stiffness springs to store and recycle energy to improve mobility. However, the maximum kinetic energy a human... Read more
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A Magnetoencephalography Study of Pediatric Interictal Neuromagnetic Activity Changes and Brain Network Alterations Caused by Epilepsy in the High Frequency (80–1000 Hz)
More and more studies propose that high frequency brain signals are promising biomarkers of epileptogenic zone. In this paper, our aim is to investigate the neuromagnetic changes and brain network topological alterations during an interictal period at high frequency ranges... Read more
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Mining Within-Trial Oscillatory Brain Dynamics to Address the Variability of Optimized Spatial Filters
   Data-driven spatial filtering algorithms optimize scores, such as the contrast between two conditions to extract oscillatory brain signal components. Most machine learning approaches for the filter estimation, however, disregard within-trial temporal dynamics and are extremely sensitive to changes in training... Read more
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Deep Learning for Electromyographic Hand Gesture Signal Classification Using Transfer Learning
        In recent years, deep learning algorithms have become increasingly more prominent for their unparalleled ability to automatically learn discriminant features from large amounts of data. However, within the field of electromyographybased gesture recognition, deep learning algorithms are seldom employed as... Read more
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Neural Decoding for Macaque’s Finger Position: Convolutional Space Model
   In this paper, we study how to use the number of spike signals in a macaque’s motor cortex to estimate the position of its finger movement. First, we analyze the time correlation of a traditional state space model (SSM) and... Read more
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Decoding Native Cortical Representations for Flexion and Extension at Upper Limb Joints Using Electrocorticography
       Brain–machine interface (BMI) researchers have traditionally focused on modeling endpoint reaching tasks to provide the control of neurally driven prosthetic arms. Most previous research has focused on achieving an endpoint control through a Cartesian-coordinate-centered approach. However, a joint-centered approach could... Read more
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3D Ultrasound Imaging of Residual Limbs With Camera-Based Motion Compensation
      Ultrasound is a cost-effective, readily available, and non-ionizing modality for musculoskeletal imaging. Though some research groups have pursued methods that involve submerging the transducer and imaged body segment into a water bath, many limitations remain in regards to acquiring an... Read more
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Cortico-Muscular Coherence Modulated by High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in People With Chronic Stroke
    High-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) is a potential neuromodulation apparatus for stroke rehabilitation. However, its modulatory effects in stroke subjects is still not well understood. In this paper, the offline modulatory effects of HD-tDCS on the ipsilesional primary motor... Read more
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Graph Theory Analysis of Functional Connectivity in Major Depression Disorder with High-Density Resting State EEG data
        Existing studies have shown functional brain networks in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have abnormal network topology structure. But the methods to construct brain network still exist some issues to be solved. This study is to explore reliable and... Read more
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Synergy-Based FES for Post-Stroke Rehabilitation of Upper-Limb Motor Functions
        Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is capable of activating muscles that are under-recruited in neurological diseases, such as stroke. Therefore, FES provides a promising technology for assisting upper-limb motor functions in rehabilitation following stroke. However, the full benefits of FES may... Read more
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Gait and Dynamic Balance Sensing Using Wearable Foot Sensors
    Remote monitoring of gait performance offers possibilities for objective evaluation, and tackling impairment in motor ability, gait, and balance in populations such as elderly, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s, etc. This requires a wearable and unobtrusive system capable of estimating ambulatory... Read more
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Voluntary Control of Residual Antagonistic Muscles in Transtibial Amputees: Feedforward Ballistic Contractions and Implications for Direct Neural Control of Powered Lower Limb Prostheses
  Discrete, rapid (i.e., ballistic like) muscle activation patterns have been observed in ankle muscles (i.e., plantar flexors and dorsiflexors) of able-bodied individuals during voluntary posture control. This observation motivated us to investigate whether transtibial amputees are capable of generating such... Read more
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Correlates of Residual Limb Pain: From Residual Limb Length and Usage to Metabolites and Activity in Secondary Somatosensory Cortex
    Most recent studies attribute residual limb pain to peripheral pathological changes of the stump. However, in this paper, we focus on its associations with the residual limb length, usage, as well as the metabolic and functional alterations of the brain.... Read more
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Learning Spatial–Spectral–Temporal EEG Features With Recurrent 3D Convolutional Neural Networks for Cross-Task Mental Workload Assessment
    Mental workload assessment is essential for maintaining human health and preventing accidents. Most research on this issue is limited to a single task. However, cross-task assessment is indispensable for extending a pre-trained model to new workload conditions. Because brain dynamics... Read more
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Unimanual vs Bimanual Motor Imagery Classifiers for Assistive and Rehabilitative Brain Computer Interfaces
   Bimanual movements are an integral part of everyday activities and are often included in rehabilitation therapies. Yet electroencephalography (EEG) based assistive and rehabilitative brain computer interface (BCI) systems typically rely on motor imagination (MI) of one limb at the time.... Read more
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Design and Validation of a Semi-Active Variable Stiffness Foot Prosthesis
  This paper presents the design and validation of a novel lower-limb prosthesis called the Variable-Stiffness Foot (VSF), designed to vary its forefoot stiffness in response to user activity. The VSF is designed as a semi-active device that adjusts its stiffness... Read more
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Restoring Natural Forearm Rotation in Transradial Osseointegrated Amputees
    Osseointegrated transradial prostheses have the potential to preserve the natural range of wrist rotation, which improves the performance of activities of daily living and reduces compensatory movements that potentially lead to secondary health problems over time. This is possible by... Read more
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Design and Development of a Portable Exoskeleton for Hand Rehabilitation
     Improvement in hand function to promote functional recovery is one of the major goals of stroke rehabilitation. This paper introduces a newly developed exoskeleton for hand rehabilitation with a user-centered design concept, which integrates the requirements of practical use, mechanical... Read more
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Functional selectivity of lumbosacral stimulation: Methodological approach and pilot study to assess visceral function in pigs
Nearly all spinal cord injured (SCI) individuals lose bladder control and are prone to kidney complications if intermittent catheterization is not applied. Electrical stimulation (ES) of the sacral anterior roots with an implantable neuroprosthesis is one means to restore continence... Read more
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simBCI – A framework for studying BCI methods by simulated EEG
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) methods are commonly studied using Electroencephalogram (EEG) data recorded from human experiments. For understanding and developing BCI signal processing techniques real data is costly to obtain and its composition is apriori unknown. The brain mechanisms generating the... Read more
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Gestural Interaction and Visual Illusion for Lower Limbs’ Neuropathic Pain Treatment
Pain caused by a lesion or a disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system is known as Neuropathic pain. It has been shown that neuropathic pain can be treated with the combination of simultaneous transcranial direct current stimulation and the generation... Read more
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Biomedical Serious Game System for Balance Rehabilitation of Hemiparetic Stroke Patients
Hemiparetic stroke patients can have several muscular and postural disorders which compromise their balance. Serious Games (SG) emerged as a new approach to enhance conventional treatment by making it a motivating method to meet individual needs. This paper evaluated the... Read more
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Design and Test of a Biomechanical Model for the Estimation of Knee Joint Angle During Indoor Rowing: Implications for FES-Rowing Protocols in Paraplegia
Functional electrical stimulation of lower limb muscles during rowing provides a means for the cardiovascular conditioning in paraplegia. The possibility of shaping stimulation profiles according to changes in knee angle, so far conceived as changes in seat position, may help... Read more
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Reducing the Energy Cost of Human Running Using an Unpowered Exoskeleton
     In this paper, we present a new perspective to design an unpowered exoskeleton for metabolic rate reduction in running. According to our studies on human biomechanics, it was observed that having a torsional spring which applies torque as a linear... Read more
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Shear Waves Reveal Viscoelastic Changes in Skeletal Muscles after Hemispheric Stroke
    We investigated alterations in material properties such as elasticity and viscoelasticity of stroke-affected muscles using ultrasound induced shear waves and mechanical models. We used acoustic radiation force to generate shear waves along fascicles of biceps muscles and measured their propagation... Read more
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Magnitude Squared Coherence Method based on Weighted Canonical Correlation Analysis for EEG Synchronization Analysis in Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment of Diabetes Mellitus
       Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases the risk of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer’s disease(AD). aMCI is the transitory stage from normal cognition to AD, which seriously impacts the quality of human life, especially for old people. Electroencephalography... Read more
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Feedback Control of Functional Electrical Stimulation for 2D Arm Reaching Movements
     Functional electrical stimulation (FES) can be used as a neuroprosthesis in which muscles are stimulated by electrical pulses to compensate for the loss of voluntary movement control. Modulating the stimulation intensities to reliably generate movements is a challenging control problem.... Read more
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An untethered ankle exoskeleton improves walking economy in a pilot study of individuals with cerebral palsy
       The high energy cost of walking in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) contributes significantly to reduced mobility and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to develop and clinically evaluate an untethered ankle exoskeleton with the ability to... Read more
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Can Wii Balance? Evaluating a Stepping Game for Older Adults
    Decline in balance control is an issue for older adults as it leads to an increased risk of falling which may result in serious injury. Mitigating this risk may be achieved through balance training and exercise, but lack of adherence... Read more
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Comparing Surface and Intramuscular Electromyography for Simultaneous and Proportional Control Based on a Musculoskeletal Model: A Pilot Study
     Simultaneous and proportional control (SPC) of neural-machine interfaces uses magnitudes of smoothed electromyograms (EMG) as control inputs. Though surface EMG (sEMG) electrodes are common for clinical neural-machine interfaces, intramuscular EMG (iEMG) electrodes may be indicated in some circumstances (e.g., for... Read more
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A Robotic System for Adaptive Training and Function Assessment of Forelimb Retraction in Mice
        Rodent models are decisive for translational research in healthy and pathological conditions of motor function thanks to specific similarities with humans. Here, we present an upgraded version of the M-Platform, a robotic device previously designed to train mice during forelimb... Read more
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Energy-Optimal Human Walking With Feedback-Controlled Robotic Prostheses: A Computational Study
  Lower-limb amputees typically experience reduced mobility and higher metabolic rates than non-amputees. It may be possible to improve their mobility and metabolic rate with an optimized robotic prosthesis. Here, we use large-scale trajectory optimization on a simulated transtibial amputee with... Read more
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Mathematical Modeling for Description of Oscillation Suppression Induced by Deep Brain Stimulation
    A mathematical modeling for description of oscillation suppression by deep brain stimulation (DBS) is explored in this work. High frequency DBS introduced to the basal ganglia network can suppress pathological neural oscillations that occur in the Parkinsonian state. However, selecting... Read more
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A Soft Exosuit for Flexible Upper-Extremity Rehabilitation
      For stroke survivors and many other people with upper-extremity impairment, daily life can be difficult without properly functioning arms. Some modern physical therapy exercises focus on rehabilitating people with these troubles by correcting patients’ perceptions of their own body to... Read more
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A Novel Multisensory Stimulation and Data Capture System (MADCAP) for Investigating Sensory Trajectories in Infancy
         Sensory processing differences, including responses to auditory, visual, and tactile stimuli, are ideal targets for early detection of neurodevelopmental risks, such as autism spectrum disorder. However, most existing studies focus on the audiovisual paradigm and ignore the sense of touch.... Read more
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Smartphone Allows Capture of Speech Abnormalities Associated With High Risk of Developing Parkinson’s Disease
       Although smartphone technology provides new opportunities for the recording of speech samples in everyday life, its ability to capture prodromal speech impairment in persons with a high risk of developing Parkinson’s disease (PD) has never been investigated. Speech data were... Read more
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Myoelectric Control Based on a Generic Musculoskeletal Model: Toward a Multi-User Neural-Machine Interface
   This paper aimed to develop a novel electromyography (EMG)-based neural-machine interface (NMI) that is user-generic for continuously predicting coordinated motion between metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and wrist flexion/extension. The NMI requires a minimum calibration procedure that only involves capturing maximal voluntary muscle... Read more
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Effects of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality on Induced Anxiety
     To explore the effects of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) in the treatment of claustrophobia, the potential effects of VR and AR on induced anxiety were investigated in this paper. During the experiment, 34 subjects were randomly selected... Read more
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Compliant Prosthetic Wrists Entail More Natural Use Than Stiff Wrists During Reaching, Not (Necessarily) During Manipulation
    Developing an artificial arm with functions equivalent to those of the human arm is one of the challenging goals of bioengineering. State-of-the-art prostheses lack several degrees of freedom and force the individuals to compensate for them by means of compensatory... Read more
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A Model to Estimate the Optimal Layout for Assistive Communication Touchscreen Devices in Children With Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy
  Excess involuntary movements and slowness of movement in children with dyskinetic cerebral palsy often result in the inability to properly interact with augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices. This significantly limits communication. It is, therefore, essential to know how to... Read more
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A Novel Validation Approach for High-Density Surface EMG Decomposition in Motor Neuron Disease
   This paper presents a novel two-source approach for validating the performance of high-density surface electromyogram (EMG) decomposition. The approach was developed taking advantage of surface EMG characteristics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). High-density surface EMG data from ALS patients can... Read more
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StableEyes—A Portable Vestibular Rehabilitation Device
     The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is the primary mechanism for stabilizing vision during rapid head movements. We have developed a training technique that typically increases the VOR response a minimum of 15% after 15 mins of training. This technique relies on... Read more
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The S-Finger: A Synergetic Externally Powered Digit With Tactile Sensing and Feedback
         Partial hand amputation is by far the most common type of amputation worldwide. Nevertheless, regardless of their potential clinical and socioeconomic impact, battery-powered partial hand prostheses, namely, powered digits, have modestly progressed so far, and very few clinical solutions are... Read more
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Transcutaneous Electrical Spinal Stimulation Promotes Long-Term Recovery of Upper Extremity Function in Chronic Tetraplegia
      Upper extremity function is the highest priority of tetraplegics for improving quality of life. We aim to determine the therapeutic potential of transcutaneous electrical spinal cord stimulation for restoration of upper extremity function. We tested the hypothesis that cervical stimulation... Read more
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Effect of the Synchronization-Based Control of a Wearable Robot Having a Non-Exoskeletal Structure on the Hemiplegic Gait of Stroke Patients
         We have been developing the robotic wear curara as both a welfare device and rehabilitation robot that assists the elderly and disabled. curara is aimed at user friendliness. We have, thus, chosen a non-exoskeleton structure made of a plastic so... Read more
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Highly Efficient Compression Algorithms for Multichannel EEG
   The difficulty associated with processing and understanding the high dimensionality of electroencephalogram (EEG) data requires developing efficient and robust compression algorithms. In this paper, different lossless compression techniques of single and multichannel EEG data, including Huffman coding, arithmetic coding, Markov... Read more
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Modeling and Characterization of Capacitive Elements With Tissue as Dielectric Material for Wireless Powering of Neural Implants
    This paper reports on the modeling and characterization of capacitive elements with tissue as the dielectric material, representing the core building block of a capacitive link for wireless power transfer to neural implants. Each capacitive element consists of two parallel... Read more
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A Stair Ascent and Descent Controller for a Powered Ankle Prosthesis
    This paper presents a control system for a powered transtibial prosthesis that provides stair ascent and descent capability, as well as ability for user-controlled transitions between walking, standing, stair ascent, and stair descent. The control system was implemented on a... Read more
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Synthesis of Subject-Specific Human Balance Responses Using a Task-Level Neuromuscular Control Platform
      Many activities of daily living require a high level of neuromuscular coordination and balance control to avoid falls. Complex musculoskeletal models paired with detailed neuromuscular simulations complement experimental studies and uncover principles of coordinated and uncoordinated movements. Here, we created... Read more
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Functional Connectivity Analysis of Mental Fatigue Reveals Different Network Topological Alterations Between Driving and Vigilance Tasks
       Despite the apparent importance of mental fatigue detection, a reliable application is hindered due to the incomprehensive understanding of the neural mechanisms of mental fatigue. In this paper, we investigated the topological alterations of functional brain networks in the theta... Read more
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Simultaneous Recognition and Assessment of Post-Stroke Hemiparetic Gait by Fusing Kinematic, Kinetic, and Electrophysiological Data
        Gait analysis for the patients with lower limb motor dysfunction is a useful tool in assisting clinicians for diagnosis, assessment, and rehabilitation strategy making. Implementing accurate automatic gait analysis for the hemiparetic patients after stroke is a great challenge in... Read more
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A Deep Learning Architecture for Temporal Sleep Stage Classification Using Multivariate and Multimodal Time Series
     Sleep stage classification constitutes an important preliminary exam in the diagnosis of sleep disorders. It is traditionally performed by a sleep expert who assigns to each 30 s of the signal of a sleep stage, based on the visual inspection... Read more
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Android Feedback-based Training modulates Sensorimotor Rhythms during Motor Imagery
   EEG-based brain computer interface (BCI) systems have demonstrated potential to assist patients with devastating motor paralysis conditions. However, there is great interest in shifting the BCI trend toward applications aimed at healthy users. Although BCI operation depends on technological factors... Read more
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Wearable Inertial Sensors for Fall Risk Assessment and Prediction in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
   Wearable inertial sensors have been widely investigated for fall risk assessment and prediction in older adults. However, heterogeneity in published studies in terms of sensor location, task assessed and features extracted is high, making challenging evidence-based design of new studies... Read more
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Perceptual and model-based evaluation of ideal time-frequency noise reduction in hearing impaired listeners
    State-of-the-art hearing aids (HAs) try to overcome the deficit of poor speech intelligibility (SI) in noisy listening environments using digital noise reduction (NR) techniques. The application of time frequency masks to the noisy sound input is a common NR technique... Read more
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Psychophysical Evaluation of Subdermal Electrical Stimulation in Relation to Prosthesis Sensory Feedback
      This study evaluated the psychophysical properties of subdermal electrical stimulation to investigate its feasibility in providing sensory feedback for limb prostheses. The detection threshold (DT), pain threshold (PT), just noticeable difference (JND), as well as the elicited sensation quality, comfort,... Read more
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IMU-Based Wrist Rotation Control of a Transradial Myoelectric Prosthesis
  This paper describes a control method intended to facilitate improved control of a myoelectric prosthesis containing a wrist rotator. Rather than exclusively utilize electromyogram (EMG) for the control of all myoelectric components (e.g., a hand and a wrist), the proposed... Read more
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Uncertainty Quantification of Oscillation Suppression during DBS in a Coupled Finite Element and Network Model
    Models of the cortico-basal ganglia network and volume conductor models of the brain can provide insight into the mechanisms of action of deep brain stimulation (DBS). In this study, the coupling of a network model, under parkinsonian conditions, to the... Read more
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Mixed Neural Network Approach for Temporal Sleep Stage Classification
      This paper proposes a practical approach to addressing limitations posed by using of single-channel electroencephalography (EEG) for sleep stage classification. EEG-based characterizations of sleep stage progression contribute the diagnosis and monitoring of the many pathologies of sleep. Several prior reports... Read more
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Robot training with vector fields based on stroke survivors’ individual movement statistics
     The wide variation in upper extremity motor impairments among stroke survivors necessitates more intelligent methods of customized therapy. However, current strategies for characterizing individual motor impairments are limited by the use of traditional clinical assessments (e.g. Fugl-Meyer) and simple engineering... Read more
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Closed-loop continuous hand control via chronic recording of regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces
    Loss of the upper limb imposes a devastating interruption to everyday life. Full restoration of natural arm control requires the ability to simultaneously control multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) of the prosthetic arm and maintain that control over an extended... Read more
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Neurofeedback Control in Parkinsonian Patients Using Electrocorticography Signals Accessed Wirelessly With a Chronic, Fully Implanted Device
       Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by motor symptoms such as rigidity and bradykinesia that prevent normal movement. Beta band oscillations (13-30 Hz) in neural local field potentials (LFPs) have been associated with these motor symptoms. Here, three PD patients implanted... Read more
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A Benchmark Dataset for SSVEP-Based Brain-Computer Interfaces
    This paper presents a benchmark steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) dataset acquired with a 40-target brain-computer interface (BCI) speller. The dataset consists of 64-channel Electroencephalogram (EEG) data from 35 healthy subjects (8 experienced and 27 naïve) while they performed a... Read more
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Open Access Dataset for EEG+NIRS Single-Trial Classification
       We provide an open access dataset for hybrid brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) using electroencephalography (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). For this, we conducted two BCI experiments (left vs. right hand motor imagery; mental arithmetic vs. resting state). The dataset was validated... Read more
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BCI Use and Its Relation to Adaptation in Cortical Networks
    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) carry great potential in the treatment of motor impairments. As a new motor output, BCIs interface with the native motor system, but acquisition of BCI proficiency requires a degree of learning to integrate this new function. In... Read more
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Neural Probes with Integrated Temperature Sensors for Monitoring Retina and Brain Implantation and Stimulation
     Gold (Au) resistive temperature sensors were integrated on flexible polyimide-based neural probes to monitor temperature changes during neural probe implantation and stimulation. Temperature changes were measured as neural probes were implanted to infer the positions of the neural probes, and... Read more
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Embroidered Electromyography: A Systematic Design Guide
     Muscle activity monitoring or Electromyography (EMG) is a useful tool. However, EMG is typically invasive, expensive and difficult to use for untrained users. A possible solution is textile-based surface EMG (sEMG) integrated into clothing as a wearable device. This is,... Read more
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Imagined Hand Clenching Force and Speed Modulate Brain Activity and Are Classified by NIRS Combined With EEG
      Simultaneous acquisition of brain activity signals from the sensorimotor area using NIRS combined with EEG, imagined hand clenching force and speed modulation of brain activity, as well as 6-class classification of these imagined motor parameters by NIRS-EEG were explored. Near... Read more
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A Stimulus-Independent Hybrid BCI Based on Motor Imagery and Somatosensory Attentional Orientation
       Distinctive EEG signals from the motor and somatosensory cortex are generated during mental tasks of motor imagery (MI) and somatosensory attentional orientation (SAO). In this study, we hypothesize that a combination of these two signal modalities provides improvements in BCI... Read more
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Multi-Indenter Device for in vivo Biomechanical Tissue Measurement
Biomechanical tissue properties have been hypothesized to play a critical role in the quantification of prosthetic socket production for individuals with limb amputation. In this investigation, a novel indenter platform is presented and its performance evaluated for the purposes of... Read more
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In vivo Estimation of Human Forearm and Wrist Dynamic Properties
It is important to estimate the 3 degree-of-freedom (DOF) impedance of human forearm and wrist (i.e., forearm prono-supination, and wrist flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation) in motor control and in the diagnosis of altered mechanical resistance following stroke. There is, however,... Read more
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Quantifying Nonlinear Contributions to Cortical Responses Evoked by Continuous Wrist Manipulation
Cortical responses to continuous stimuli as recorded using either magneto- or electroencephalography (EEG) have shown power at harmonics of the stimulated frequency, indicating nonlinear behavior. Even though the selection of analysis techniques depends on the linearity of the system under... Read more
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Epileptic Focus Localization Using Discrete Wavelet Transform Based on Interictal Intracranial EEG
Over the past decade, with the development of machine learning, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) has been widely used in computer-aided epileptic EEG signal analysis as a powerful time-frequency tool. But some important problems have not yet been benefitted from DWT,... Read more
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Multichannel Electrotactile Feedback With Spatial and Mixed Coding for Closed-Loop Control of Grasping Force in Hand Prostheses
Providing somatosensory feedback to the user of a myoelectric prosthesis is an important goal since it can improve the utility as well as facilitate the embodiment of the assistive system. Most often, the grasping force was selected as the feedback... Read more
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An Empirical Evaluation of Force Feedback in Body-Powered Prostheses
Myoelectric prostheses have many advantages over body-powered prostheses, yet the absence of sensory feedback in myoelectric devices is one reason body-powered devices are often preferred by amputees. While considerable progress has been made in the mechanical design and control of... Read more
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The Fabrication, Implantation, and Stability of Intraspinal Microwire Arrays in the Spinal Cord of Cat and Rat
Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) is currently under investigation for its ability to restore function following spinal cord injury and aid in addressing basic investigations of the spinal cord in feline and murine (rat) models. In this report we describe the procedures... Read more
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Two-Tactor Vibrotactile Navigation Information for the Blind: Directional Resolution and Intuitive Interpretation
Lacking vision, blind people have to exploit other senses for navigation. Using the tactile rather than the auditory sense avoids masking important environmental information. Directional information is particularly important and traditionally conveyed through an array of tactors, each coding one... Read more
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Evaluation of the Achilles Ankle Exoskeleton
This paper evaluates the Achilles exoskeleton. The exoskeleton is intended to provide push-off assistance for healthy subjects during walking. The assistance is provided by a series elastic actuator that has been optimized to provide maximal push-off power. The paper presents... Read more
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Biomechanical and Physiological Evaluation of Multi-Joint Assistance With Soft Exosuits
To understand the effects of soft exosuits on human loaded walking, we developed a reconfigurable multi-joint actuation platform that can provide synchronized forces to the ankle and hip joints. Two different assistive strategies were evaluated on eight subjects walking on... Read more
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Rehabilitative Soft Exoskeleton for Rodents
Robotic exoskeletons provide programmable, consistent and controllable active therapeutic assistance to patients with neurological disorders. Here we introduce a prototype and preliminary experimental evaluation of a rehabilitative gait exoskeleton that enables compliant yet effective manipulation of the fragile limbs of... Read more
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State-of-the-Art and Future Directions for Robotic Lower Limb Exoskeletons
Research on robotic exoskeletons has rapidly expanded over the previous decade. Advances in robotic hardware and energy supplies have enabled viable prototypes for human testing. This review paper describes current lower limb robotic exoskeletons, with specific regard to common trends... Read more
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In Vivo Magnetic Stimulation of Rat Sciatic Nerve With Centimeter- and Millimeter-Scale Solenoid Coils
Previous reports of magnetic stimulation of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) used various coil geometries, all with outer diameters larger than 35 mm, and stimulation energies in the 50 J range to evoke neural excitation. Recent reports of central nervous... Read more
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Directed Functional Connectivity in Fronto-Centroparietal Circuit Correlates With Motor Adaptation in Gait Training
Lower-extremity robotic exoskeletons are used in gait rehabilitation to achieve functional motor recovery. To date, little is known about how gait training and post-training are characterized in brain signals and their causal connectivity. In this work, we used time-domain partial... Read more
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Wearable Barometric Pressure Sensor to Improve Postural Transition Recognition of Mobility-Impaired Stroke Patients
Sit-to-stand and Stand-to-sit transfers (STS) provide relevant information regarding the functional limitation of mobility- impaired patients. The characterization of STS pattern using a single trunk fixed inertial sensor has been proposed as an objective tool to assess changes in functional... Read more
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Abnormal Neural Oscillations in Schizophrenia Assessed by Spectral Power Ratio of MEG During Word Processing
This study investigated spectral power of neural oscillations associated with word processing in schizophrenia. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were acquired from 12 schizophrenia patients and 10 healthy controls during a visual word processing task. Two spectral power ratio (SPR) feature sets:... Read more
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MIT-Skywalker: A Novel Gait Neurorehabilitation Robot for Stroke and Cerebral Palsy
The MIT-Skywalker is a novel robotic device developed for the rehabilitation or habilitation of gait and balance after a neurological injury. It represents an embodiment of the concept exhibited by passive walkers for rehabilitation training. Its novelty extends beyond the... Read more
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SmartEye: Developing a Novel Eye Tracking System for Quantitative Assessment of Oculomotor Abnormalities
Eye movements are a continuous and ubiquitous part of sensory perception. To properly generate highly accurate and co-ordinate ocular movements, a vast network of brain areas are engaged, from low-level visual processing to motor control of gaze orientation. This renders... Read more
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A Spatially Focused Method for High Density Electrode-Based Functional Brain Mapping Applications
Mapping the electric field of the brain with electrodes benefits from its superior temporal resolution but is prone to low spatial resolution property comparing with other modalities such as fMRI, which can directly impact the precision of clinical diagnosis. Simulations... Read more
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Semiparametric Identification of Human Arm Dynamics for Flexible Control of a Functional Electrical Stimulation Neuroprosthesis
We present a method to identify the dynamics of a human arm controlled by an implanted functional electrical stimulation neuroprosthesis. The method uses Gaussian process regression to predict shoulder and elbow torques given the shoulder and elbow joint positions and... Read more
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Position-Independent Decoding of Movement Intention for Proportional Myoelectric Interfaces
In this decade, myoelectric interfaces based on pattern recognition have gained considerable attention thanks to their naturalness enabling human intentions to be conveyed to and in control of a machine. However, the high variations of electromyogram signal patterns caused by... Read more
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Automatic Parametrization of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials With Chirp Modeling
In this paper, an approach using polynomial phase chirp signals to model somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) is proposed. SEP waveforms are assumed as impulses undergoing group velocity dispersion while propagating along a multipath neural connection. Mathematical analysis of pulse dispersion... Read more
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Real-Time Detection and Monitoring of Acute Brain Injury Utilizing Evoked Electroencephalographic Potentials
Rapid detection and diagnosis of a traumatic brain injury (TBI) can significantly improve the prognosis for recovery. Helmet-mounted sensors that detect impact severity based on measurements of acceleration or pressure show promise for aiding triage and transport decisions in active,... Read more
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Discriminative Manifold Learning Based Detection of Movement-Related Cortical Potentials
The detection of voluntary motor intention from EEG has been applied to closed-loop brain–computer interfacing (BCI). The movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) is a low frequency component of the EEG signal, which represents movement intention, preparation, and execution. In this study,... Read more
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Movement Anticipation and EEG: Implications for BCI-Contingent Robot Therapy
Brain-computer interfacing is a technology that has the potential to improve patient engagement in robot-assisted rehabilitation therapy. For example, movement intention reduces mu (8-13 Hz) oscillation amplitude over the sensorimotor cortex, a phenomenon referred to as event-related desynchronization (ERD). In... Read more
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Children with Dystonia Can Learn a Novel Motor Skill: Strategies that are Tolerant to High Variability
Children with dystonia are characterized by highly variable and seemingly uncontrolled movements. An important question for any rehabilitative effort is whether these children can learn and improve their performance. This study compared children with dystonia due to cerebral palsy, typically... Read more
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Endogenous Sensory Discrimination and Selection by a Fast Brain Switch for a High Transfer Rate Brain-Computer Interface
In this study, we present a novel multi-class brain-computer interface (BCI) system for communication and control. In this system, the information processing is shared by the algorithm (computer) and the user (human). Specifically, an electro-tactile cycle was presented to the... Read more
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Gait Analysis from a Single Ear-Worn Sensor: Reliability and Clinical Evaluation for Orthopaedic Patients
Objective assessment of detailed gait patterns after orthopaedic surgery is important for post-surgical follow-up and rehabilitation. The purpose of this paper is to assess the use of a single ear-worn sensor for clinical gait analysis. A reliability measure is devised... Read more
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Evaluate the feasibility of using frontal SSVEP to implement an SSVEP – based BCI in Young, Elderly and ALS groups
This paper studied the amplitude-frequency characteristic of frontal steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and its feasibility as a control signal for brain computer interface (BCI). SSVEPs induced by different stimulation frequencies, from 13 ~ 31 Hz in 2 Hz steps,... Read more
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Design and Fabrication of a Six Degree-of-Freedom Open Source Hand
Currently, most externally powered prostheses are controlled using electromyography (or EMG), which is the measure of the electrical signals that are produced when voluntary muscle is contracted. One of the major problems is that there are a limited number of... Read more
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Coordination of Reach-to-Grasp Kinematics in Individuals With Childhood-Onset Dystonia Due to Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy
Functional reaching is impaired in dystonia. Here, we analyze upper extremity kinematics to quantify timing and coordination abnormalities during unimanual reach-to-grasp movements in individuals with childhood-onset unilateral wrist dystonia. Kinematics were measured during movements of both upper limbs in a... Read more
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Locomotor Adaptation by Transtibial Amputees Walking With an Experimental Powered Prosthesis Under Continuous Myoelectric Control
Lower limb amputees can use electrical activity from their residual muscles for myoelectric control of a powered prosthesis. The most common approach for myoelectric control is a finite state controller that identifies behavioral states and discrete changes in motor tasks.... Read more
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Variable Cadence Walking and Ground Adaptive Standing With a Powered Ankle Prosthesis
This paper describes a control approach that provides walking and standing functionality for a powered ankle prosthesis, and demonstrates the efficacy of the approach in experiments with a unilateral transtibial amputee subject. Both controllers incorporate a finite-state structure that emulates... Read more
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Development of an Environment-Aware Locomotion Mode Recognition System for Powered Lower Limb Prostheses
This paper aimed to develop and evaluate an environment- aware locomotion mode recognition system for volitional control of powered artificial legs. A portable terrain recognition (TR) module, consisting of an inertia measurement unit and a laser distance meter, was built... Read more
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Minimizing Stimulus Current in a Wearable Pudendal Nerve Stimulator Using Computational Models
After spinal cord injury, functions of the lower urinary tract may be disrupted. A wearable device with surface electrodes which can effectively control the bladder functions would be highly beneficial to the patients. A trans-rectal pudendal nerve stimulator may provide... Read more
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Impaired Inhibitory Force Feedback in Fixed Dystonia
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a multifactorial disorder associated with an aberrant host response to tissue injury. About 25% of CRPS patients suffer poorly understood involuntary sustained muscle contractions associated with dysfunctional reflexes that result in abnormal postures (fixed... Read more
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Assessment of the Tongue-Drive System Using a Computer, a Smartphone, and a Powered-Wheelchair by People With Tetraplegia
Tongue-Drive System (TDS) is a wireless and wearable assistive technology that enables people with severe disabilities to control their computers, wheelchairs, and smartphones using voluntary tongue motion. To evaluate the efficacy of the TDS, several experiments were conducted, in which... Read more
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Spatial and Functional Selectivity of Peripheral Nerve Signal Recording With the Transversal Intrafascicular Multichannel Electrode (TIME)
The selection of suitable peripheral nerve electrodes for biomedical applications implies a trade-off between invasiveness and selectivity. The optimal design should provide the highest selectivity for targeting a large number of nerve fascicles with the least invasiveness and potential damage... Read more
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Assessments of Muscle Oxygenation and Cortical Activity Using Functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy in Healthy Adults During Hybrid Activation
Hybrid activation (HA), patterned electrical stimulation (ES) superimposed on attempted voluntary movement in close synchrony, can augment muscle force output. It has been proposed for limb function restoration and neuromodulation. Limited studies have been performed to investigate the influences of... Read more
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Assessment of Foot Trajectory for Human Gait Phase Detection Using Wireless Ultrasonic Sensor Network
This paper presents a new highly accurate gait phase detection system using wearable wireless ultrasonic sensors, which can be used in gait analysis or rehabilitation applications. The gait phase detection system uses the foot displacement information during walking to extract... Read more
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Mechanisms of Gait Asymmetry Due to Push-Off Deficiency in Unilateral Amputees
Unilateral lower-limb amputees exhibit asymmetry in many gait features, such as ground force, step time, step length, and joint mechanics. Although these asymmetries result from weak prosthetic-side push-off, there is no proven mechanistic explanation of how that impairment propagates to... Read more
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Using Actual and Imagined Walking Related Desynchronization Features in a BCI
Recently, brain–computer interface (BCI) research has extended to investigate its possible use in motor rehabilitation. Most of these investigations have focused on the upper body. Only few studies consider gait because of the difficulty of recording EEG during gross movements.... Read more
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Hand Pose Estimation by Fusion of Inertial and Magnetic Sensing Aided by a Permanent Magnet
Tracking human body motions using inertial sensors has become a well-accepted method in ambulatory applications since the subject is not confined to a lab-bounded volume. However, a major drawback is the inability to estimate relative body positions over time because... Read more
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FORCe: Fully Online and Automated Artifact Removal for Brain-Computer Interfacing
A fully automated and online artifact removal method for the electroencephalogram (EEG) is developed for use in braincomputer interfacing (BCI). The method (FORCe) is based upon a novel combination of wavelet decomposition, independent component analysis, and thresholding. FORCe is able... Read more
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Vibrotactile Stimulation Promotes Embodiment of an Alien Hand in Amputees With Phantom Sensations
Abstract Tactile feedback is essential to intuitive control and to promote the sense of self-attribution of a prosthetic limb. Recent findings showed that amputees can be tricked to experience this embodiment, when synchronous and modality-matched stimuli are delivered to biological afferent structures and to an... Read more
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Neural Control of a Tracking Task via Attention-Gated Reinforcement Learning for Brain-Machine Interfaces
Abstract Reinforcement learning (RL)-based brain machine interfaces (BMIs) enable the user to learn from the environment through interactions to complete the task without desired signals, which is promising for clinical applications. Previous studies exploited Q-learning techniques to discriminate neural states into simple directional actions providing the... Read more
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Hierarchy of Neural Organization in the Embryonic Spinal Cord: Granger-Causality Graph Analysis of In Vivo Calcium Imaging Data
Abstract The recent development of genetically encoded calcium indicators enables monitoring in vivo the activity of neuronal populations. Most analysis of these calcium transients relies on linear regression analysis based on the sensory stimulus applied or the behavior observed. To estimate the basic properties of... Read more
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Running With a Powered Knee and Ankle Prosthesis
Abstract This paper presents a running control architecture for a powered knee and ankle prosthesis that enables a transfemoral amputee to run with a biomechanically appropriate running gait and to intentionally transition between a walking and running gait. The control architecture consists firstly of a... Read more
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Fine-Wire Electromyography Response to Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation in the Triceps Surae
Abstract Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has previously been used to enhance venous return from the lower leg. By artificially activating lower leg muscles, venous blood may be effectively ejected from the muscle and adjacent veins. It could easily be assumed that... Read more
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Optimizing the Electrical Stimulation of Retinal Ganglion Cells
Abstract Epiretinal prostheses aim to restore visual perception in the blind through electrical stimulation of surviving retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). While the effects of several waveform parameters (e.g., phase duration) on stimulation efficacy have been described, their relative influence remains unclear.... Read more
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Quantitative Evaluation of a Low-Cost Noninvasive Hybrid Interface Based on EEG and Eye Movement
Abstract This paper describes a low-cost noninvasive brain-computer interface (BCI) hybridized with eye tracking. It also discusses its feasibility through a Fitts’ law-based quantitative evaluation method. Noninvasive BCI has recently received a lot of attention. To bring the BCI applications into... Read more
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Design and Control of the MINDWALKER Exoskeleton
ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract Powered exoskeletons can empower paraplegics to stand and walk. Actively controlled hip ab/adduction (HAA) is needed for weight shift and for lateral foot placement to support dynamic balance control and to counteract disturbances... Read more
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Motor Imagery Learning Induced Changes in Functional Connectivity of the Default Mode Network
Abstract Numerous studies provide evidences that motor skill learning changes the activity of some brain regions during task as well as some resting networks during rest. However, it is still unclear how motor learning affects the resting-state default-mode network (DMN). Using... Read more
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Suppression of Subthalamic Nucleus Activity by Micromagnetic Stimulation
Abstract Magnetic stimulation delivered via 0.5-mm diameter coils was recently shown to activate retinal neurons; the small coil size raises the possibility that micromagnetic stimulation (μMS) could underlie a new generation of implanted neural prosthetics. Such an approach has several inherent... Read more
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Design of Multiple Axis Robotic Platform for Postural Stability Analysis
Abstract This paper presents the design and implementation of IsiMove, a new dynamic posturography platform. It allows the evaluation of the static and dynamic balance of a human placed on a force plate. IsiMove is a robotic platform open kinematic with... Read more
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Cross-Comparison of Three Electromyogram Decomposition Algorithms Assessed With Experimental and Simulated Data
Abstract The reliability of clinical and scientific information provided by algorithms that automatically decompose the electromyogram (EMG) depends on the algorithms’ accuracies. We used experimental and simulated data to assess the agreement and accuracy of three publicly available decomposition algorithms—EMGlab (McGill... Read more
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Characterizing Motor and Cognitive Effects Associated With Deep Brain Stimulation in the GPi of Hemi-Parkinsonian Rats
Abstract The globus pallidus internus (GPi) is the main output nucleus of the basal ganglia, which is associated with a variety of functions including motor performance and cognition. The GPi is one of the primary targets of deep brain stimulation (DBS)... Read more
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Enhanced Effective Connectivity in Mild Occipital Stroke Patients With Hemianopia
Abstract Plasticity-based spontaneous recovery and rehabilitation intervention of stroke-induced hemianopia have drawn great attention in recent years. However, the underlying neural mechanism remains unknown. This study aims to investigate brain network disruption and reorganization in hemianopia patients due to mild occipital... Read more
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Controlled Nerve Ablation With Direct Current: Parameters and Mechanisms
Abstract Spastic hypertonus (muscle over-activity) often develops after spinal cord injury or stroke. Chemodenervating agents such as Botulinum toxin A (BtA) and phenol are often used to treat this condition. We have previously shown that the use of direct current (DC)... Read more
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Human–Robot Interaction: Kinematics and Muscle Activity Inside a Powered Compliant Knee Exoskeleton
Abstract Until today it is not entirely clear how humans interact with automated gait rehabilitation devices and how we can, based on that interaction, maximize the effectiveness of these exoskeletons. The goal of this study was to gain knowledge on the... Read more
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Enhancement of Bilateral Cortical Somatosensory Evoked Potentials to Intact Forelimb Stimulation Following Thoracic Contusion Spinal Cord Injury in Rats
Abstract The adult central nervous system is capable of significant reorganization and adaptation following neurotrauma. After a thoracic contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) neuropathways that innervate the cord below the epicenter of injury are damaged, with minimal prospects for functional recovery. In contrast, pathways above the... Read more
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A Multi-Views Multi-Learners Approach Towards Dysarthric Speech Recognition Using Multi-Nets Artificial Neural Networks
Abstract Automatic speech recognition (ASR) can be very helpful for speakers who suffer from dysarthria, a neurological disability that damages the control of motor speech articulators. Although a few attempts have been made to apply ASR technologies to sufferers of dysarthria,... Read more
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3-D Flexible Nano-Textured High-Density Microelectrode Arrays for High-Performance Neuro-Monitoring and Neuro-Stimulation
Gabran, S.R.I. ; Salam, M. ; Dian, J. ; El-Hayek, Y. ; Perez Velazquez, J.L. ; Genov, R. ; Carlen, P. ; Salama, M.M.A. ; Mansour, R. Abstract We introduce a new 3-D flexible microelectrode array for high performance electrographic neural signal... Read more
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The Extraction of Neural Information from the Surface EMG for the Control of Upper-Limb Prostheses: Emerging Avenues and Challenges
Farina, D. ; Jiang, N. ; Rehbaum, H. ; Holobar, A. ; Graimann, B. ; Dietl, H. ; Aszmann, O.C. Abstract Despite not recording directly from neural cells, the surface electromyogram (EMG) signal contains information on the neural drive to muscles, i.e,... Read more
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Novel Targeted Sensory Reinnervation Technique to Restore Functional Hand Sensation After Transhumeral Amputation
Hebert, J.S. ; Olson, J.L. ; Morhart, M.J. ; Dawson, M.R. ; Marasco, P.D. ; Kuiken, T.A. ; Chang, K.M. ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract We present a case study of a novel variation of the targeted sensory reinnervation... Read more
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Dexterous Control of a Prosthetic Hand Using Fine-Wire Intramuscular Electrodes in Targeted Extrinsic Muscles
Cipriani, C. ; Segil, J. L. ; Birdwell, A. J. ; Weir, R. F ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract Restoring dexterous motor function equivalent to that of the human hand after amputation is one of the major goals in... Read more
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A Preliminary Assessment of Legged Mobility Provided by a Lower Limb Exoskeleton for Persons With Paraplegia
Farris, R.J. ; Quintero, H.A. ; Murray, S.A. ; Ha, K.H. ; Hartigan, C. ; Goldfarb, M. ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract This paper presents an assessment of a lower limb exoskeleton for providing legged mobility to people with... Read more
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Is Sensorimotor BCI Performance Influenced Differently by Mono, Stereo, or 3-D Auditory Feedback?
McCreadie, K.A. ; Coyle, D.H. ; Prasad, G. ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract Imagination of movement can be used as a control method for a brain-computer interface (BCI) allowing communication for the physically impaired. Visual feedback within such a... Read more
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Simulating Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation With a Detailed Anisotropic Human Head Model
Rampersad, S.M. ; Janssen, A.M. ; Lucka, F. ; Aydin, U. ; Lanfer, B. ; Lew, S. ; Wolters, C.H. ; Stegeman, D.F. ; Oostendorp, T.F. ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive... Read more
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Towards a New Modality-Independent Interface for a Robotic Wheelchair
Freire Bastos-Filho, T. ; Auat Cheein, F. ; Torres Muller, S.M. ; Cardoso Celeste, W. ; de la Cruz, C. ; Cavalieri, D.C. ; Sarcinelli-Filho, M. ; Faria Santos Amaral, P. ; Perez, E. ; Soria, C.M. ; Carelli, R. ACCESS... Read more
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Independent Component Ensemble of EEG for Brain-Computer Interface
C-H Chuang, L-W Ko, Y-P Lin, T-P Jung, C-T Lin ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract Recently, successful applications of independent component analysis (ICA) to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals have yielded tremendous insights into brain processes that underlie human cognition. Many studies have further... Read more
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Sliding HDCA: Single-Trial EEG Classification to Overcome and Quantify Temporal Variability
A. Marathe, A. Ries, and K. McDowell ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract Patterns of neural data obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) can be classified by machine learning techniques to increase human-system performance. In controlled laboratory settings this classification approach works well; however, transitioning these... Read more
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Stimulation Selectivity of the “Thin-Film Longitudinal Intrafascicular Electrode” (tfLIFE) and the “Transverse Intrafascicular Multi-Channel Electrode” (TIME) in the Large Nerve Animal Model
A. Kundu, K. R. Harreby, K. Yoshida, T. Boretius, T. Stieglitz and W. Jensen ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract Neural prostheses are limited by the availability of peripheral neural electrodes to record the user’s intention or provide sensory feedback through functional... Read more
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Neural Network Based Diagonal Decoupling Control of Powered Wheelchair Systems
T.N. Nguyen, S. Su and H. T. Nguyen ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract This paper proposes an advanced diagonal decoupling control method for powered wheelchair systems. This control method is based on a combination of the systematic diagonalization technique and the neural... Read more
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A System for Delivering Mechanical Stimulation and Robot-Assisted Therapy to the Rat Whisker Pad During Facial Nerve Regeneration
J. T. Heaton, C. J. Knox, J. S. Malo, J. B. Kobler, and T. A. Hadlock ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract Functional recovery is typically poor after facial nerve transection and surgical repair. In rats, whisking amplitude remains greatly diminished after... Read more
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On the Construction of a Skill-Based Wheelchair Navigation Profile
C. Urdiales, E. J. Pérez, G. Peinado, M. Fdez-Carmona, J. M. Peula, R. Annicchiarico, F. Sandoval, and C. Caltagirone ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract Assisted wheelchair navigation is of key importance for persons with severe disabilities. The problem has been solved in... Read more
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Force Adaptation in Human Walking With Symmetrically Applied Downward Forces on the Pelvis
V. Vashista, N. Agrawal, S. Shaharudin, D. S. Reisman, and S. K. Agrawal ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract The application of external constraints and/or applied forces during movement can lead to reactive as well as adaptive changes in human motion. Previous research... Read more
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L1-Regularized Multiway Canonical Correlation Analysis for SSVEP-Based BCI
Y. Zhang, G. Zhou, J. Jin, M. Wang, X. Wang, and A. Cichocki   ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) between recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) and designed reference signals of sine-cosine waves usually works well for steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) recognition... Read more
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Adaptive Inverse Control of Neural Spatiotemporal Spike Patterns With a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS) Framework
L. Li, I.M. Park, A. Brockmeier, B. Chen, S. Seth, J. T. Francis, J. C. Sanchez, and J. C. Príncipe ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract The precise control of spiking in a population of neurons via applied electrical stimulation... Read more
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Evaluation of a MEMS-Based Dual Metal-Layer Thin-Film Microelectrode Array for Suprachoroidal Electrical Stimulation
Xiaohong Sui, Jingjing Sun, Liming Li, Chuanqing Zhou, Xuejiao Luo, Niansheng Xia, Yan Yan, Yao Chen, Qiushi Ren, and Xinyu Chai ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract A double metal-layer thin-film platinum microelectrode array was fabricated for implantation between sclera... Read more
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A Largely Deformable Surface Type Neural Electrode Array Based on PDMS
Namsun Chou, Soonki Yoo, and Sohee Kim, Member, IEEE ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract This paper describes a largely deformable surface type neural electrode array based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for cortical use. Noncracked and reliable metal patterns were fabricated... Read more