Autoencoder-Inspired Convolutional Network-Based Super-Resolution Method in MRI

Autoencoder-Inspired Convolutional Network-Based Super-Resolution Method in MRI 150 150 IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine (JTEHM)

Objective: To introduce an MRI in-plane resolution enhancement method that estimates High-Resolution (HR) MRIs from Low-Resolution (LR) MRIs. Method & Materials: Previous CNN-based MRI super-resolution methods cause loss of input image information due to the pooling layer. An Autoencoder-inspired Convolutional Network-based Super-resolution (ACNS) method was developed with the deconvolution layer that extrapolates the missing spatial information by the convolutional neural network-based nonlinear mapping between LR and HR features of MRI. Simulation experiments were conducted with virtual phantom images and thoracic MRIs from four volunteers. The Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Structure SIMilarity index (SSIM), Information Fidelity Criterion (IFC), and computational time were compared among: ACNS; Super-Resolution Convolutional Neural Network (SRCNN); Fast Super-Resolution Convolutional Neural Network (FSRCNN); Deeply-Recursive Convolutional Network (DRCN). Results: ACNS achieved comparable PSNR, SSIM, and IFC results to SRCNN, FSRCNN, and DRCN. However, the average computation speed of ACNS was 6, 4, and 35 times faster than SRCNN, FSRCNN, and DRCN, respectively under the computer setup used with the actual average computation time of 0.15 s per 100 × 100 pixels. Conclusion: The result of this study implies the potential application of ACNS to real-time resolution enhancement of 4D MRI in MRI guided radiation therapy.