Objective: A simulator for retrobulbar anesthesia administration mimicking the orbital anatomy and providing tactile sensation is proposed. Methods: The production process involves 3D modeling of anatomical structures on the basis of computerized tomography (CT) images, printing the models using a 3D printer, and casting the silicone. Twenty ophthalmologists administered retrobulbar anesthesia using the simulator with four different ocular axial lengths (including extreme myopes); the position of the needle tip was evaluated. The effectiveness of this simulator for training was also surveyed. Results: The proportions of the final location of the needle tip were 59.25%, 36.25%, and 4.5% for the retrobulbar space, peribulbar space, and intraocular space, respectively. Experienced ophthalmologists showed lower complication rates than residents (0.5% vs 8.5%, P < 0.001) and agreed that this simulator will help young ophthalmologists advance their anesthesia-administering skills. Discussion/Conclusion: The 3D-printered simulator for retrobulbar anesthesia was produced and performance was verified. The technology could be used to simulate critical orbital anatomic features and could be used as a training tool for resident ophthalmologists.
3D-Printed Ophthalmic Retrobulbar Anesthesia Simulator: Mimicking Anatomical Structures and Providing Tactile Sensations https://www.embs.org/jtehm/wp-content/uploads/sites/17/2021/07/Screen-Shot-2021-07-28-at-11.35.13-AM.png 241 546 IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine (JTEHM) //www.embs.org/jtehm/wp-content/uploads/sites/17/2022/06/ieee-jtehm-logo2x.png