Neurofeedback Control in Parkinsonian Patients Using Electrocorticography Signals Accessed Wirelessly With a Chronic, Fully Implanted Device
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by motor symptoms such as rigidity and bradykinesia that prevent normal movement. Beta band oscillations (13-30 Hz) in neural local field potentials (LFPs) have been associated with these motor symptoms. Here, three PD patients implanted with a therapeutic deep brain neural stimulator that can also record and wirelessly stream neural data played a neurofeedback game where they modulated their beta band power from sensorimotor cortical areas. Patients’ beta band power was streamed in real-time to update the position of a cursor that they tried to drive into a cued target. After playing the game for 1-2 hours each, all three patients exhibited above chance-level performance regardless of subcortical stimulation levels. This study, for the first time, demonstrates using an invasive neural recording system for at-home neurofeedback training. Future work will investigate chronic neurofeedback training as a potentially therapeutic tool for patients with neurological disorders.