This Special Issue includes a selection of papers presented at the 11th International Symposium on Bioinformatics Research and Application (ISBRA), which was held at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, VA, USA, on May 7–10, 2015. The ISBRA symposium provides a forum for the exchange of ideas and results among researchers, developers, and practitioners working on all aspects of bioinformatics and computational biology and their applications. In 2015, 98 papers were submitted in response to the call for papers, out of which 12 papers were invited to submit extended versions of their conference abstracts to this Special Issue. Selected papers illustrate the variety of applications that computational methods find in the field of nanobioscience, ranging from protein classification to de novo sequencing. Furthermore, selected papers convincingly demonstrate the central role played by computational methods in contemporary nanobioscience research—a role that is bound only to increase in the future.