Unlike normal diffusion, in anomalous diffusion, the movement of a molecule is described by the correlated random walk model where the mean square displacement of a molecule depends on the power law of time. In molecular communication (MC), there are many scenarios when the propagation of molecules cannot be described by normal diffusion process, where anomalous diffusion is a better fit. In this paper, the effects of anomalous subdiffusion on concentration-encoded molecular communication (CEMC) are investigated. Although classical (i.e., normal) diffusion is a widely-used model of diffusion in molecular communication (MC) research, anomalous subdiffusion is quite common in biological media involving bio-nanomachines, yet inadequately addressed as a research issue so far. Using the fractional diffusion approach, the molecular propagation effects in the case of pure subdiffusion occurring in an unbounded three-dimensional propagation medium have been shown in detail in terms of temporal dispersion parameters of the impulse response of the subdiffusive channel. Correspondingly, the bit error rate (BER) performance of a CEMC system is investigated with sampling-based (SD) and strength (i.e., energy)-based (ED) signal detection methods. It is found that anomalous subdiffusion has distinctive time-dispersive properties that play a vital role in accurately designing a subdiffusive CEMC system. Unlike normal diffusion, to detect information symbols in subdiffusive CEMC, a receiver requires larger memory size to operate correctly and hence a more complex structure. An in-depth analysis has been made on the performances of SD and ED optimum receiver models under diffusion noise and intersymbol interference (ISI) scenarios when communication range, transmission data rate, and memory size vary. In subdiffusive CEMC, the SD method
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