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Bioprinted collagen-based cell-laden scaffold with growth factors for tympanic membrane regeneration in chronic perforation model

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With the recent development of bioprinting technology, various attempts have been made to replace bioprinting technologies and regenerative medicine are more directed towards transplantation/reconstructive surgeries only with the implantation of scaffolds. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the growth factors, human umbilical cord serum (hUCS) and bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor), have a synergistic effect on eardrum regeneration, when used with a cell-printed scaffold in a chronic tympanic membrane perforation (TMP) model. In this study, in vitro cellular activities for bioprinted cell-laden collagen scaffolds using human adipose stem cells (hASCs) and supplemented with 10 μg/mL hUCS and 10 ng/mL bFGF were performed. The mixture of the growth factors in the cell-laden structures effectively affects various in vitro cellular responses including the proliferation of hASCs and the migration of keratinocytes due to the synergistic effect of the growth factors and hASCs. For the in vivo evaluation, a rat TMP model was used, and the TMP regeneration was assessed by otoscopic examination, hearing threshold measurement, and histologic examination. Although the cell-laden structure containing hUCS was more enhancing effect compared to the structure with bFGF, more synergistic effect in the structure using hUCS/bFGF was observed. Based on the results, we believe that the cell-laden structure incorporating hUCS and bFGF can induce significant regeneration of chronic tympanic membrane perforation.

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