A Graphene and Aptamer Based Liquid Gated FET-Like Electrochemical Biosensor to Detect Adenosine Triphosphate
Here we report successful demonstration of a FET-like electrochemical nano-biosensor to accurately detect ultralow concentrations of adenosine triphosphate. As a 2D material, graphene is a promising candidate due to its large surface area, biocompatibility and demonstrated surface binding chemistries and has been employed as the conducting channel. A short 20-base DNA aptamer is used as the sensing element to ensure that the interaction between the analyte and the aptamer occurs within the Debye length of the electrolyte (PBS). Significant increase in the drain current with progressive addition of ATP is observed whereas for control experiments, no distinct change in the drain current occurs. The sensor is found to be highly sensitive in the nanomolar (nM) to micromolar (µM) regime with a high sensitivity of 2.55 µA(mM)-1, a detection limit as low as ~10 pM, and it has potential application in medical and biological settings to detect low traces of ATP. This simplistic design strategy can be further extended to efficiently detect a broad range of other target analytes.