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Image guidance in deep brain stimulation surgery to treat Parkinson’s disease: a comprehensive review

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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective therapy as an alternative to pharmaceutical treatments for Parkinson’s disease (PD). Aside from factors such as instrumentation, treatment plans, and surgical protocols, the success of the procedure depends heavily on the accurate placement of the electrode within the optimal therapeutic targets while avoiding vital structures that can cause surgical complications and adverse neurologic effects. While specific surgical techniques for DBS can vary, interventional guidance with medical imaging has greatly contributed to the development, outcomes, and safety of the procedure. With rapid development in novel imaging techniques, computational methods, and surgical navigation software, as well as growing insights into the disease and mechanism of action of DBS, modern image guidance is expected to further enhance the capacity and efficacy of the procedure in treating PD. This article surveys the state-of-the-art techniques in image-guided DBS surgery to treat PD, and discusses their benefits and drawbacks, as well as future directions on the topic.

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