Modern Practical Health Care Issues in Biomedical Instrumentation

Modern Practical Health Care Issues in Biomedical Instrumentation 150 150 IEEE Pulse

Edited by Dilber Ozsahin and Ilker Ozsahin, Academic Press, 2021, ISBN: 9780323854139, xiv + 190 pages, $130

Based upon the title and advertising of this newly published text, this reviewer presumed the readership of IEEE Pulse would be interested in an overview of the material. From the publishers posted advertisement: “Modern Practical Health care Issues in Biomedical Instrumentation describes the designs, applications and principles of several medical devices used in hospitals and at home. The book presents practical devices that can potentially be used for health care purposes. Sections cover the use of biosensors to monitor the physiological properties of the human body, focusing on devices used to evaluate, measure and manipulate the biological system, and highlighting practical devices that can potentially be used for health care purposes. It is an excellent resource for undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate students of biomedical engineering.”

This text is a two-editor, 40-contributor, 14-chapter paperback (or electronic copy) textbook. It covers a variety of topics peripheral to “mainline” medical devices and instruments. A brief review follows.

A 1.3-page Chapter 1, titled “Introduction to biomedical instrumentation,” begins with the statement that “Biomedical instrumentation focuses on the development of methods and devices for the treatment of diseases” and “was introduced during the Apollo missions when it became a necessity to measure the vital signs of astronauts.” After defining a sensor-interface-computation model as applicable to all biomedical equipment and instruments, we are told “This book details the design, development, and application of biomedical instruments.” (Reviewer note: OK, but not the same as the title of the text.)

Chapter 2 is titled “Designing a 3D Printed Artificial Hand.” This chapter discusses the development of a low-cost artificial hand (printed and assembled materials cost less than $250, total cost under $800 for a unit.) Materials used are available to hobbyists, thus a myoWare electromyogram sensor and an Arduino [Due or uno, (both are mentioned)], allows “pulse with modulation” (sic) of the servomotors. We are warned that the batteries in this device (9 V DC max!) may pose a fibrillation risk to the patient, but that will be addressed in a later design. The chapter concludes that the design as proposed does not meet the accomplishments of higher priced devices, but since it can grip items at low cost it is of value. No data is given regarding user feedback, nor is there any discussion of a far cheaper alternative, cineplasty.

Chapter 3 is titled “Construction of smart assistive gloves for paralytic people.” This chapter briefly outlines the different types of paralysis terms relevant to humans, then outlines a two-“implored” (sic) Arduino four-movement (left, right, up, and down) sensing device (glove) that will light a four-colored LED display with buzzer to notify a caregiver of the subject’s needs. (e.g., food, water, etc., pick one of four!). No justification is given for not using a four-position switch, phone, or four different sounding bells or verbal requests on the part of the subject.

Chapter 4, titled “Development of smart jacket for disc,” begins with the following two strange sentences: “Low back pain (LBP) is recorded as one of the most predominant disorders with a high spread of about 70% among Americans. This leads to a low movement of nutrients in the body, which may subsequently cause a degenerative disc disease (DDD).” The authors (7!) propose an architectural design using organized electromechanical processes combined in a fabric: 1) Microcontroller, 2) DC12V massage cushion vibrating system (no manufacturer named), 3) Bluetooth HC05, 4) DC Fan, 5) EMG, and 6) Sound sensor module. Among other things, we are told that the cushion “also prevents exposure to cartilage glaucoma for people who drive cars for extended periods”! Following a slight expansion of this list, the reader is given a two-page explanation of resistors and an explanation of the color band coding of values, with a photograph of a small circuit board labeled resistor. The reader is further informed (page 41): “Risk of using an electric massage device: 1. Treatment with an electrocardiogram may be dangerous if the vibration intensity is very high; this may cause lower back injuries and severe back pain. 2. Impromptu sound of the buzzer and sensor may cause shock to the user.” The reader is also informed (page 41): “The electrical properties of muscle fibers, in professional language, are called shrapnel.” A portion of the conclusion of this chapter reads: “The design of this novel smart device amounts to critically understanding the electromechanical organization of the device and the subsequent challenges involved in its application. Getting individuals to try wearing this prototype device was challenging, so we tried using it first.” No data is given as to the efficacy of the design.

This reviewer could not bring himself to read the following ten chapters of this text, based upon the material extracted above. Not recommended.

—(Partially) Reviewed by Paul H. King

Vanderbilt University