In this paper, an individualized intelligent multiple-model technique is proposed to design automatic artificial pancreas (AP) systems for the glycemic regulation of type 1 diabetic patients. At first, using the multiple-model concept, the insulin-glucose regulatory system is mathematically identified by constructing some local models. In this step, trade-offs between the number of local models and the complexity of the overall closed-loop system are made by defining and solving a bi-objective optimization problem. Then, optimal AP systems are designed by tuning a bank of proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers via the genetic algorithm (GA). A fuzzy gain scheduling strategy is employed to determine the participation percentages of the PID controllers in the control action. Finally, two safety mechanisms, called insulin on board (IOB) constraint and pump shut-off, are installed in the AP systems to enhance their performance. To assess the proposed AP systems, in silico experiments are performed on virtual patients of the UVA/Padova metabolic simulator. The obtained results reveal that the proposed intelligent multiple-model methodology leads to AP systems with limited hyperglycemia and no severe hypoglycemia.
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