IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering

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Mechanical Imaging of Soft Tissues with Miniature Climbing robots
We propose a method that uses our previously developed skin-crawling robots to noninvasively test the mechanical properties of soft tissue. We explore the use of two miniature sensors: an indenter and a cutometer. We evaluate the sensor's performance from data collected on simulated tissue, classifying the depth and size of a simulated lump with over 98.8% accuracy using convolutional neural nets. Finally, we do limited on-body testing to map dry skin on the forearm with a cutometer. We hope to improve the ability to test tissues noninvasively, providing better sensitivity and systematic data collection... Read more
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Experimental results using force-feedback cueing in robot-assisted stroke therapy
Abstract:Stroke is the leading cause of disability among adults in the United States. Behaviors such as learned nonuse hinder hemiplegic stroke survivors from the full use of both arms in activities of daily living. Active force-feedback cues, designed to restrain... Read more
A Roadmap towards Standards for Neurally Controlled End Effectors
The control and manipulation of various types of end effectors such as powered exoskeletons, prostheses, and neural cursors by brain-machine interface (BMI) systems has been the target of many research projects. A seamless plug and play interface between any BMI... Read more
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Promoting Functional and Independent Sitting in Children with Cerebral Palsy Using the Robotic Trunk Support Trainer
Seated postural abilities are critical to functional independence and participation in children with cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) levels III-IV. In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated the feasibility of a motor learning–based seated postural training with a robotic Trunk-Support-Trainer (TruST) in a longitudinal single-subject-design (13y, GMFCS IV), and its potential effectiveness in a group of 3 children (6-14y, GMFCS III-IV)... Read more
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The impact of ACL laxity on a bicondylar robotic knee and implications in human joint biomechanics
A robot model of the human knee provides a new way to investigate joint biomechanics. The specially designed joint has geometry copied from human bones scans and uses springs for ligaments. A knee cap (patella) and tendons transmit forces from an antagonistic pair of actuators, like in the human leg. This method overcomes many of the experimental limitations from using human tissue. The robot demonstrates the unique way in which the sliding of the joint surfaces allows the human knee mechanism to compensate when critical structures such as the anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) are removed... Read more
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A Biocompatible Near-Infrared 3D Tracking System
A fundamental challenge in soft-tissue surgery is that target tissue moves and deforms, becomes occluded by blood or other tissue, and is difficult to differentiate from surrounding tissue. To overcome these problems, we developed biocompatible near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) markers with... Read more
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Simulation-Based Design for Wearable Robotic Systems: An Optimization Framework for Enhancing a Standing Long Jump
Wearable robotic devices offer great potential to improve human performance for various movement tasks, but the success of these devices has been limited by our insufficient understanding of the complex interactions between the human and assistive device. With computer simulation... Read more
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Variable Cadence Walking and Ground Adaptive Standing With a Powered Ankle Prosthesis
This paper describes a control approach that provides walking and standing functionality for a powered ankle prosthesis, and demonstrates the efficacy of the approach in experiments with a unilateral transtibial amputee subject. Both controllers incorporate a finite-state structure that emulates... Read more