IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
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Quantitative Evaluation of the Thickness of the Available Manipulation Volume Inside the Knee Joint Capsule for Minimally Invasive Robotic Unicondylar Knee Arthroplasty
The development of novel robotic surgical instruments such as a laser-cutting tool for minimally invasive unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is challenging when quantitative requirements are missing. Therefore, we developed and applied a method to quantify the volume inside the knee joint available to manipulate robotic surgical instruments during minimally invasive procedures. We 1) injected contrast solution into nine cadaveric knees, 2) performed and segmented computed tomography scans, and 3) investigated the size and distribution of the injected contrast solution’s volume inside the knee joints. The injected contrast solution’s volume represented the available manipulation space for minimally invasive surgical instruments... Read more
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Contrast-free detection of focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening using diffusion tensor imaging
Karakatsani et al. report a contrast-free method to detect focused ultrasound (FUS)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The localized BBB opening was hypothesized to result to a transient change in the diffusion pattern of water molecules and was tested in a non-human primate model, which closely resembled the human anatomy. They found that fractional anisotropy within the targeted area increased by 82% after the procedure, showing that DTI can confirm BBB opening without the use of contrast agents, increasing the safety of the methodology since contrast does not have to cross into the brain parenchyma... Read more
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Guide-wired Helical Microrobot for Percutaneous Revascularization in Chronic Total Occlusion in-vivo Validation
Here we show an enhanced powered guide wired helical millirobot for mechanical thrombectomy in cardiovascular intervention capable of autonomous therapeutics. We build up and demonstrate a millimeter robot fabrication with a spherical joint and a guidewire, a high-power and frequency actuation via external electromagnetic field control, and autonomous therapeutic motions comprise driving, steering, and drilling. We validate all performances in two-dimensional fluidic channels mimicking the vascular network and finally in-vivo environments. Beyond nature-inspired millirobot technologies, our work has the potential of advanced mechanical thrombectomy application and advancement of micrometer and millimeter robot technology toward real clinical utilization... Read more
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Living Donor-Recipient Pair Matching for Liver Transplant via Ternary Tree Representation with Cascade Incremental Learning
This work visually analyzes anatomical variants of liver vessels anatomy to maximize similarity for finding suitable living donor-recipient pairs. We leverage incremental learning in a cascade feature mapping way via updating input CTA training model to optimize segmentation capability. A ternary-tree-based approach is proposed to map all possible liver vessel variants into their respective tree topologies. The ternary tree in-order traversing is designed to efficiently compare the digital strings of two anatomically varied vessel structures to find a suitable match. Experiments through visual illustrations and quantitative analysis demonstrated our method computed very efficiently for finer visualization of liver tree structures... Read more
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Ultra-high-resolution 3D optical coherence tomography reveals inner structures of human placenta-derived trophoblast organoids
Many pregnancy complications are assumed to have their pathophysiological roots in early stages of placentation. Hence, trophoblast research represents a pre-requisite to help preventing pregnancy disorders that endangers uncomplicated gestations and jeopardizes maternal/fetal wellbeing later in life. Recently established 3D trophoblast organoids (TB-ORG) advanced human placental research. However, gold standard methods for determining TB-ORG architectures lack imaging depth and/or are endpoint analyses. We addressed these problems with 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT). This work demonstrates for the first time that OCT resolves label-free inner structures of TB-ORG during cultivation and enables qualitative/quantitative assessment of their differentiation status without sample destruction... Read more